Hupa Online Dictionary and Texts



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'a'dilaw he fixed himself up

'a'diłchwe he or she is training (to be a doctor)

'a'diwiłwul-e:-te he will shake himself along

'a'k'iwile:l he keeps doing so

'a'niwiłchwo'n she got to be pretty

'a:- thus, in this way

'a:'iłdahs-ts'eh he felt heavy

'a:ch'o:ne he thinks so

'a:da:-k'ił'e:n typewriter; computer

'a:da:-nahł'its automobile, train

'a:da:-nayk'iłxut' sewing machine

'a:de'k'iwimilil she keeps throwing water against herself

'a:de'ts grasshopper

'a:de'xołkit she caught him against herself

'a:dich'owhte I am bashful

'a:dileh fix yourself up!

'a:dił'e:n I fix myself up, get dressed up (for a ceremony)

'a:dił-na:k'iłtul bicycle

'a:dima:nch'ing'-na'xine:wh the medicine man in a corpse purification ritual

'a:dina:k'ischwe'n he put something away for himself (for the winter)

'a:dino:sehł heat penetrates into oneself

'a:disawhchwit I put my finger into my throat

'a:disch ant

'a:dite:sehłtsit' I cut off my hair

'a:diwa:na:ya'nde'iliwh they take it (regalia) off themselves again

'a:diwa:nung'diwichwilił-te she will rub herself

'a:diwine' it's been said

'a:diwun'diwiłwa:tł' she threw it (her cap) off of herself

'a:diwung-na:niwhda'ay I'm calling it (e.g., dog) back

'a:diwung-xwe:lik I told about myself

'a:dixa'niwidya'n he became ashamed

'a:dixa:whdiya:n I'm ashamed

'a:jiw' "tan-oak" mushroom

'a:jiw'-michwo yellow fungus on the ground. (Appears on the ground before mushrooms sprout.)

'a:k'idiwhlaw I'm treated thus, things (unexpectedly) happen to me

'a:k'idyaw what has happened

'a:k'ileh mark it! write!

'a:k'ił'e:n basket design (general term)

'a:k'ine something makes a sound, there is a sound

'a:k'ine' there is no more food

'a:k'int'e it was that long

'a:k'iwh'e:n I'm marking it with a design (paint, tattoo, etc.), writing

'a:k'iwhlaw I marked it, wrote

'a:k'iwilaw writing, a book

'a:k'iwilaw-me'-ch'inehł'e:n school

'a:ł-sa'a:n credit

'a:n Indeed! Good!

'a:na'k'iwhilaw he took a picture of me

'a:na:k'iwhileh take a picture of me!

'a:na:k'ixowh'e:n I take a picture of him

'a:nisah my! it's such a long ways!

'a:niwe:se:t'e' I came to be (such and such), I became a certain way

'a:niwe:sehłchwo'n I got to be pretty

'a:t'e:n it is doing it

'a:whił-ch'ine he is telling me, says (this) to me

'a:whiwilaw what is done to me, my way of being treated

'a:wholye I am named so

'a:wht'e I am (such and such)

'a:whwilaw the way in which I am dressed

'a:wilaw it is done, made, accomplished

'a:winiw it always happens

'a:xołchwin there is an odor, something smells

'a:xowiłchwe'n an odor came, something began to smell

'a:ya'diwine:l they were saying

'a:ya'wine:l he has passed away (polite term)

'a:yułt'iK' they were so slim

'ah cloud

'ahłdiwine' it's been spoken of

'aht'ing all (of them), every one

'awh I wonder

'awh'e:n I do it, make it, accomplish it

'awhchwo:n I am pretty

'awhdiyaw I did it

'awhlaw I did it

'awhne:l I'm doing so (right along)

'awhniw I am doing it, acting thus

'awhxich'e' wealthy woman (old-fashioned, archaic term)

'ayeh I'm tired, weak

'ayge I'm lonely, lonesome for something! (exclamation expressing loneliness, wistfulness, nostalgia)

'ayniwhsin I think so

'e'idwa'n they (tree-tops) broke off

'e'ilwil-mił every evening, whenever night comes

'e:bilos apples

'e:din it is without..., lacking..., missing...

'e:jin-sile'n there is a famine

'e:nde'n it came to be lacking, it disappeared

'e:ng' for...'s part

'e:ná:ng' for sure

'e:wa:k alas! poor thing! too bad! how sad! it's so pitiful!

'e:wa:k-whonde:ne have pity on me!

-'eh turning away from

'ehs fish dam, weir

'ehsch'ina:wh swimming deer

'ehs-ma:ning'ay the "stringer" across a fish dam (the logs that are laid horizontally across the supports of a fish dam.)

'ida' it (pain) ceases, (car) stops

'idah it (e.g. ice, fog) is melting away, dissipating, disappearing

'igyahs it (stick, tree limb, object) is breaking, breaking off

'ijibeh I'm scared! I'm afraid!

'ilditł' it (e.g., house, earth) shakes, quakes

'ildus it breaks

'ile'-te:l red cedar (Juniperus virginiana)

'ile:xich in imagination; wonderfully

'ilwił it's getting to be night, night is falling

'ilxit swallow it!

'ił limb, bough of a conifer

'ił'a' get it! keep it!

'iłchwe make it!

'iłchwiwh smell it (thing)! sniff it!

'iłda' stop it (e.g., car from rolling)!

'iłde sisters to one another

'iłding' make it be lacking! make it disappear!

'iłwa'k'iłiwh store

'iłwah-xw separately, each by himself

'iłwut all the time

'iłxahch break it apart!

'iłxut shake them (e.g. apples) down, off (of tree)!

'imich break it off, pull it off (string, grass)

'ina'k'is'aw she got up singing

'ina'sitindil they get up

'ina:'usde:tł' they got up

'ina:'usdiqe' he got up

'ina:'usła:t she jumped up

'ina:wh it goes (literal meaning); they (nuts, acorns) are dropping (idiomatic meaning)

'ina:xohs'a:n they jumped up

'inch'iwh put it on (coat, dress)!

'iniłte' do it harder!

'iniwe:na:ts'a:xe' Little Woodpecker's name in the language of the giants (a note in the story explains that this name cannot be analyzed in to smaller pieces)

'int'a:na'winde:tł' they turned back

'inyeh-ky'a'awh he barbecues something by burying it and building a fire over it

'inying' stand up!

'isde:w madrone (Arbutus menziesii)

'isde:wi-ch rhododendron-like plant that grows up on Trinity Summit

'isdina:me' the south head at the entrance of Humboldt Bay

'isdits' string, light rope

'isdo' I wish...!

'iskimida:w' long hanging moss on conifers

'isking-mina:k'iwilda:l hairy woodpecker (Dendrocopos villosus)

'isle't'e:n a type of Indian potato, edible root

'islos the smell of rotten meat

'isq'o:ts' berries (general term); blackberries (Rubus vitifolius)

'isq'o:ts'-yiditile finch (Carpodacus purpureus, Purple Finch)

'isqa:q' clubs (suit in playing cards)

'ist'ik' it is thin, slender, narrow

'ist'ik' honeysuckle (Lonicera californica)

'ist'ik'its-k'ine:lno' tattoo design element

'ista:ngq'eh-k'itiqowh fisher; pine marten (Martes pennanti)

'iwh'uch' I sneeze

'iwh'ul I'm chewing it

'iwh'ut I'm throwing, shaking, flopping (a cloth, blanket)

'iwhch'ah I'm wearing a hat, cap

'iwhchwa I bury it, cover it with dirt

'iwhchwe:n I smell it (some odor)

'iwhchwing' I'm going to shit, defecate

'iwhdił I'm eating small objects (such as berries) one by one (as I pick them)

'iwhdin I'm content, I like it where I am

'iwhdiya'n I'm growing old

'iwhge:s I'm scratching something (with fingers)

'iwhkis I strike something (with my fist), I knock at the door

'iwhkit I caught hold of it

'iwhlich I'm urinating, pissing

'iwhłiw I'm rubbing on (paint, grease, liniment, etc.), smearing something (with paint, etc.)

'iwhme'n I'm building (a house, fence, etc.)

'iwhna:t I'm licking it

'iwhq'ay I grind it, file it, rub it

'iwhqit I'm cutting, sawing it (log, stick, meat)

'iwhqos I am cracking it, crunching it (in my mouth)

'iwhsa:l I'm yawning, gabbling

'iwhsow I'm scratching it (with an implement)

'iwht'a'n I flinch, jerk away, duck, blink

'iwht'iwh I'm chiseling something

'iwht'ot I'm sucking it

'iwht'us I'm cutting it

'iwhts'is I'm shaking it (stick, tree, etc.)

'iwhtseh I'm breaking wind, farting

'iwhtsil I am pounding, driving, nailing something

'iwhtsis I see it

'iwhtsit I'm pounding, smashing, breaking it (with a rock, maul)

'iwhwa:s I'm whittling, scraping something

'iwhwis I'm drilling a hole

'iwhxa:wh I catch (fish) with a dip-net

'iwhye:wh I'm rubbing it in my hand (crushing it), I'm threshing seeds

'iwhyo' I like it

'iwhyo' I like it better

'iwhyo:l I'm blowing

'ixut (several objects) drop, fall

'o:dxe:t it has been bought

'o:k'iłn they (shells) might break!

'o:lts'it it is known, it has become known

'o:ltuq' it is counted

'o:lyohł I'm swearing at him

'o:ne:chwit I reached for it, went and got it

'o:niwhsin I keep it (knowledge, the facts of something) hidden, keep it secret

'o:whts'ilił-te I will know

'o:wit'a:ts' mida'ch that has been incised (like nahdiyaw) but not used as money

'o:yłchwit I pointed at it

'ohłdahs singe it!

'ongqots' it is brittle

'owhte I find it (easily)

'owhts'it I know it

'owhtuq' I am counting it

'owhwhe I'm reading (aloud)

'owhxe:t I'll buy it

'ude:q'it-na'qot umbrella

'ugeh ouch! it hurts!

'uliwh it has (such) a taste

'ulleh do it!

'uloh it's hot!

'ulush it's dirty! it's nasty! (exclamation of disgust)

'ułchwin it smells like something

'ułkyo:we all over

'ułkyow it is so big, as big as (something)

'ułtsa:ch'ing' far away, distant

'ułtsah that far, to that distance

'una'udo once again

'ung is it...?

'ungya' unexpectedly, surprisingly, seeing something suddenly, lo and behold!

'unłung they are so many

'unłung-xwe:-ding everywhere

'unt'eh clearly

'uná:ng' it isn't, it isn't certain, it's questionable

'usyah it's cold!

'ut-t'e:n married man

'áng' it is

...-ch'il'e:n (people) treat it like...

K'iwa'-mił white man

Ka:n corn

Ka:whe coffee

-a for

-a:-ming ahead of, in front of

-a:n penetrating, perforating

bahshe:l holly (berries)

bo:se common house cat

bo:se:-mixe' another term for clubs

-ch little, tiny, dear, in a small or gentle way

ch'a'ul dandelion; chewing gum (modern)

ch'a:q'ita:ke' Big Lagoon

ch'ah-ch'e:ng'e:tł' design equivalent to the Yurok "sharp tooth" design

ch'ah-ch'il'e:n ash (Fraxinus oregona)

ch'ahl frog, toad (Rana)

ch'ahla'qude' sunflower (Helianthus annus)

ch'ahli-ding Hop'ew (Klamath)

ch'ahlike:la:t'e' tadpole

ch'ahli-mila' Equivalent to the Yurok "foot" design

ch'ahli-we:sits' green moss in the river

ch'ahli-ya:n a type of fish hawk

ch'ah-wilchwe:n design equivalent to the Yurok waxpoo, and Karuk apxanko'ikoi, designs

ch'e'idinilye' they finish the religious dance

ch'e'ilła:t she runs out

ch'e'iłkyo:s they bring it (a grass skirt) out

ch'e'it'iky' they are strung out in a line

ch'e'ite' he always lay there

ch'e'ixis it flew [out]

ch'e'k'e'iłchwo:k she (doctor) brushes (the patient) out

ch'e'k'iningwhe' he finished digging

ch'e'k'inint'a'ts'-te he will cut it out

ch'e'liwh-ding Sahvurum

ch'e'nilay he took them (several objects) out

ch'e'niłme:n he made it swim out

ch'e'niłqe:t he put it out (poked his face out)

ch'e'niłtik he pinched it out (Fox's face)

ch'e'ninta:n he took it out (long, stick-like object)

ch'e'whinehłya:n he (or they) slaughtered my family, did away with my people

ch'e'xe'ine:wh he is through talking

ch'e'xone:ninyo:t they chased them out

ch'e'xoniłte:n they took him out

ch'e:- out of an enclosure, outside the house

ch'e:'ilqol it had crawled out

ch'e:'ilto'n he jumped out

ch'e:'indigit they ran down (after someone)

ch'e:'indiqo'-ding name of village near the mouth of Mill Creek

ch'e:'indiqot'ding-mima:nch'ing' White Deerskin danceground across the Trinity from ch'e:'indiqot'-ding

ch'e:'iwhwa:wh I get through speaking

ch'e:dimił-ding goal in stick game

ch'e:diqeh it shoves itself out

ch'e:k'e'ich'e' a wind blows out

ch'e:k'e'iqot a sharp pain is felt

ch'e:k'e'iyawh they (deer) always came out (to feed)

ch'e:k'indida' it came out

ch'e:k'ingxut' he had it covered over

ch'e:k'iwe'ił-ding on the bank near Sam Brown's house

ch'e:k'iyohwh (water) is running out

ch'e:l-ding Socktish Field

ch'e:lte:n it (sickness) has been taken out

ch'e:na'nime:tł' he had them thrown out

ch'e:na'ułwa:l they come back out of the Flower Dance (beating time with sticks)

ch'e:na'xoniłt'ow he took his shirt off

ch'e:na:'uldixit they again crowd out dancing

ch'e:na:dahwh-ding Dyer's Ranch

ch'e:na:k'inda'a:n it (spear) got loose

ch'e:na:ne:de:tł' we got out of it

ch'e:na:xo:ta:'a:n they all ran back out

ch'e:na:xonehłting I brought it (ice) out

ch'e:nawhda:wh I'm getting back out of it (e.g., boat, car)

ch'e:ne:de:tł' we (2) went outside, went to the toilet

ch'e:ne:xa:n I carried it out

ch'e:ng'a it comes out

ch'e:ng'e:tł' they extend out (of an enclosure)

ch'e:nila:t it floated out

ch'e:nileh-te they will dive out

ch'e:nima:s it rolled out

ch'e:ntł'e:t' (soft flabby material) bulges out, flops out (as when squeezed)

ch'e:nułye'ts' untie the knot!

ch'e:te:t'e' they are cooked out (someone's eyes, from staying awake)

ch'e:wehsle'n it started to flow out

ch'e:wha:wh I'm going outside, I'm going to the toilet

ch'e:wilin it (water) flows out (e.g., creek into river, mouth of river, faucet, hose)

ch'e:wilin-ding where the stream flows out (into the ocean - specifically Requa, the Yurok village at the mouth of the Klamath River); also applied to Orick at the mouth of Redwood Creek (Sapir and Golla 2001:1011, map D, item 3)

ch'e:wiwha:whił-te I shall go out

ch'e:xoliwhme' camping place mentioned in Sam Brown's story about an encounter with a grizzly bear (unknown location)

ch'e:xowhsit I'm waking him up

ch'e:ya'wiliwhil they take them out right along

ch'ich'it he died

ch'ichwiw he (adult) is crying

ch'ide'ilye'-ding Chilula seed gathering camp

ch'ide:-chwing household goods, cooking utensils (baskets, paddles, other implements used in cooking traditional foods)

ch'idilye they dance in a religious dance, a religious dance is held

ch'idilye religious dance, World Renewal ceremony

ch'idilye:-ch'iłchwe the man who prepares the danceground for the religious dances (ch'idilye), says the prayers, and otherwise looks after the details of the ceremony.

ch'idilye:-ding any danceground at which a religious dance is held

ch'idilye:-wint'e:-ding land of the immortals k'ixinay, located on the periphery of the world, beyond the sky

ch'idiłdow he's cutting pieces (off of meat), he's making a cut in it

ch'idiłne he plays (a musical instrument)

ch'idise:l he has a fever

ch'idiske:n he is stiff (in the joints)

ch'idiwichwil he shot (an arrow) again and again

ch'idiwilła:t he jumped off

ch'idiwilye'ił-te they will dance

ch'idiwiłtse:tł' he pounded (bark) off of it

ch'idiwiłwa:tł' she knocked it off

ch'idiwimich he pulled it off

ch'idiwinse:l he got feverish

ch'idiwiske:n he got stiff

ch'idiwists'e:n he got stiff

ch'idung' at first, to begin with

ch'ildime:n' the sharp end of something; sharp-pointed

ch'iloy' he ties it up, ropes (an animal)

ch'ilxun it is bitter, sour

ch'iłchwe he collects, gathers (wood, berries, etc.)

ch'iłday he has a pet

ch'iłidzehsdila' they quarrelled, were enemies, hated each other

ch'iłolwul they were throwing things at each other

ch'iłq'un-ding chief village of the Upper Redwood Creek (Whilkut) people

ch'iłta:n he had it (a fish trap) lying there

ch'iłte:l-ding name of a village located on South Fork

ch'iłtsit' untie it (by pulling out a knot)!

ch'iłtul he is tapping, patting his foot, stamping (esp. in Kick Dance)

ch'iłtuł Kick Dance, the way of dancing at a Kick Dance

ch'iłwa:l they are beating time; a Flower Dance is being held

ch'iłwa:l Flower Dance (girls' adolescence ceremony)

ch'ime:- pine, conifer

ch'imisqiyits small baby

ch'imulkyoh type of medicinal herb

ch'in he says, they say, it is said

ch'indimilé a goal!

ch'indin corpse, dead person, ghost

ch'indin-tahxw Hell, land of the dead

ch'indiqe:t they came down to it (in a canoe)

ch'indiqot' it (e.g. worm) wriggles out

ch'ine'iliwh they always brought them

ch'ine'it'ik' they string out in single file

ch'ine'ixa:wh they bring it out (the regalia)

ch'ine:lgit he became afraid

ch'inehłya:n he ate it up

-ch'ing' toward

-ch'ing'ah toward

ch'ing'awh take it (e.g. stone) out of something (e.g., a pocket), take it outside (of the house)

ch'ingquch toss it out (with stick)! make a goal (in the stick game)!

ch'iniloy' he led it

ch'iniłchwing' he is making it dirty

ch'iniwiłdo'n he straightened it out

ch'iniyiw he grows up

ch'inyohs pull it out! (string, sliver, stovepipe, etc.)

ch'isixung she lies back ready to have intercourse

ch'it scraps, trash

ch'ita:n he is eating (by himself)

ch'ite'idyo:s they all stretch

ch'ite'ixa:wh he carries it (a pipe) along in a vessel

ch'ite:dimut' she flapped her wings along

ch'ite:t'ot' he sucked it in

ch'ite:te:me:tł' he scatters them

ch'ite:te:yo:s he stretched it (a canoe)

ch'ite:wa:tł' he scattered them

ch'ite:we'ing'il he looked about as he went along

ch'ite:wehschwe:n he grew up

ch'ite:wid'ing'ił he looked (places)

ch'itehłchwa'n he squeezed it up

ch'itehłda:wh he ran off

ch'itehłkyo:s he took it (a blanket) along

ch'itehłme:n he made it swim

ch'itehłwhot' he slid

ch'itehłwhot' he slid it

ch'itehs'a:n he took it away, went off with it (e.g. stone)

ch'itehstun he takes it (long object) along

ch'itiłiw he's marking something, drawing a line

ch'itiłxos he is coughing

ch'itindil they're going off

ch'itiwilda:whil she runs along

ch'itiwina:whił he goes along

ch'ito:ch'iwh let him wear it!

ch'iwehswa:tł' he lies there (like a log that has been thrown down), dead or unconscious; he came to lie there drunk

ch'iwhiłts'is-xoliwh I'm shivering, shaking

ch'iwhisiwiłwehł he kills me

ch'iwhisqot he deviled me

ch'iwho:ning'its he took a shot at me

ch'iwho:wiłxilił-te she will ask me for it

ch'iwho:ya:łqoch' they poked at me

ch'iwhowh elderberry (bush), elder sticks (Sambucus)

ch'iwhsit I'm waking up

ch'iwhwhiw I'm spitting it out

ch'iwhxiwh let me haul it out of my house

ch'iwhxiy young person (especially young man), child

ch'iwidil they're going, walking along

ch'iwijijil he carries it along (e.g., a handful of some granular substance, such as seeds, salt)

ch'iwilehł-te he will become

ch'iwilq'a:l he is growing fatter and fatter

ch'iwilqol he is crawling along

ch'iwiltong'il he was dancing

ch'iwiłdits he got wrinkled

ch'iwiłkyo:sil he carries it along (e.g., a blanket, cloth, thin fabric)

ch'iwiłmowhil he's carrying it along (hanging)

ch'iwiłte' he fell over dead

ch'iwiłte:n he put it

ch'iwiłxil he is hauling it along

ch'iwingwha:l he caught fish (with a hook and line)

ch'iwingwhil he shouted

ch'iwingyay he went

ch'iwinje:w he died, passed away (polite term)

ch'iwixa:l he carries it along (e.g., a filled container, such as a bucket of water)

ch'iwoł he is scraping (deerhide, with a scraper)

ch'ixiwine:whil he talks

ch'ixo:ne'iłyo:l they wish him bad luck

ch'ixo:niłyo:l making bad medicine, witchcraft, poison

ch'ixo:ya:se'ixawh they always pay

ch'ixoch'e:t liar, one who lies

ch'ixoditehł'e'n he watched her along

ch'ixolchwe the man who prepares the danceground for the religious dances (ch'idilye)

ch'ixolchwe (story about) pre-human times, when the world was being prepared for human beings

ch'ixolchwe:-ding Kenek

ch'ixołchwe he fixes up (the danceground), prepares (the place)

ch'ixoniłte:n he brought her there

ch'ixowa:t-xoliwh he shakes, trembles

ch'ixowiłchwe:lił-te he will fix the dance place

ch'ixowiłte:l he was taking her

ch'ixowiłwe' he fought him, beat him up

ch'iya:di-min medicine for a wound

ch'iyah he's hurt, wounded

ch'iyłkit (cloud, fog, smoke) comes out (e.g., of chimney)

ch'iyninge:n she packed it out (burden-basket)

ch'iyo oh my! (exclamation indicating surprise, (mild) fear)

ch'iyo'ne someone teases, there is teasing

ch'o'da:y he is thin, poor

ch'o'winda' he got thinner

ch'o:'ot'us he cuts at it

ch'o:na:niwichwil a type of singing at the Kick Dance

ch'o:na:niwichwil they sing in howling fashion

ch'o:whe'ił-te they will call

ch'o:winehł-te she will think about it

ch'o:xoniłxits' she threw something at him

ch'onta'n he's holding on to it

chwa' beaver (Castor)

chwa'ay-me' former village near xonsah-ding

chwa:kin tiger-lily

chwa:xołwil it's dark, getting dark

chwe:ge:-yixolwhin meadowlark

chwe:qah robin redbreast (Turdus migratorius)

chwe:y yearling of elk; spotted hide of yearling elk (archaic term)

chweh crying, weeping

chweh-xosin orphan

chweh-xotile cry-baby

chwich wood, firewood

chwich-na:ning'a:-ding Kepel (Cappell)

chwiłch huckleberries (Vaccinium ovatum)

chwin'-da:- spoiling, to ruination

chwin'da:na:wh it spoils, goes bad, has become polluted

chwin'dung'awh spoil, ruin it (round object)!

chwin-ch'iliw he is dirty, gets dirty

-chwing of that class, kind, sort

chwing filth, dirt

chwing-me'do:wehsle' he got hungry

chwing-me:do:whle I am hungry

chwing-xo:whle:l I am bothering him, disturbing him, messing with him

chwini-ya'xowehsle:l they bothered them

chwola' five

chwola'diminłung fifty

chwulo:q'e' chinook salmon (Onchorhynchus tshawytscha)

chwun'-k'itiłma:s dung beetle

chwun'-yołtul towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus, Rufous-sided Towhee)

chwung' feces, excrement, shit

chwung'-na:xe words to a song sung by women at the beginning af the Flower Dance

chwung'-xa:'ul'a' name of a Chilula camp

da'a:ch'idyaw he ran away, fled

da'a:ch'ilaw he took it apart

da'a:nawh'ing I'm undoing it, untying it

da'a:nulleh undo it!

da'ayneh run away! flee!

da'e'iłte' he left it on something

da'e'iwhmil I throw it on top

da'e'iwhtiwh I (always) set it (a long object) on top

da'kya:w oriole (Icterus cucullatus, Hooded Oriole; I. galbula, Northern Oriole)

da'kya:w-nehwa:n yellow

da'n a while ago, already

da'ne long ago

da'usday he is fishing (with a net)

da'wida:l he was coming (out of the sweathouse)

da:-'ung I found it out

da:ch'ahdi-ya:n fish hawk (Pandion haliaetus, Osprey)

da:ch'aht sucker, suckerfish (Catostomus)

da:ch'aht-xa:yiłtiwh eagle (probably second name for ło:q'-ya:n)

da:chwingq'ay' a type of fern (Pleridium aquiliunum)

da:chwun'-ding name of a village located opposite niskin-ji-ding

da:jahl dog salmon (Oncorhynchus sp.)

da:la dollar

da:ydi where?

da:ywho'- somewhere

dah- on top

dah'iwh'a:wh I set it (e.g. stone) on top

dahch'a'awh he sets a (deer) snare

dah-ch'e'iłda' she sets it up

dahch'idiwiłkyo:s he has taken it (a blanket) away

dahch'idiwintse he pulled it (canoe) up onto land

dahch'iłiwidle:l they stand arm in arm

dahch'ine'itiwh she lies down on top of it

dahch'ine:łno' they stood them up (flints on a wall)

dahch'inehsday he sat down on top; (idiomatically) he went fishing with a net

dahch'itehłto'n he jumped (over something)

dahch'iwijijil they put them (acorns) up one after the other

dahch'iwile:l arrows

dahch'iwił'e:tł' he roofed, shingled a house

dahch'iwinge:n he put something (fire) on it

dahch'iwitil she was holding it up

dahchwin'-ding lower part of Matilton village

dahchwing' wild "currants"; scraggly (?) gooseberries (Ribes divarlatum (?))

dahde'ilya' they (animals) stand around

dahdi-ding more and more, increasingly

dahdimo't'-dime' Orick Hill

dahdimot' little bare hill; knobby rise; knoll

dahdiwehs'a'-te it (his face) will point to it (the wind)

dah-diwhtuł I step on (something)

dahdiwilte:n he has been carried off

dahdiwilxit' the river has risen, flooded

dahdiwiwhła:t I ran fast

dahjił storage platform in a living house

dahk'e'iłte:l they (always) spread a cover on it

dah-k'e'iłtsay' she dries it on top

dah-k'e'iqot one sticks them up (on wall)

dahk'idiwehsch'e' the wind blew

dahk'idiwinch'e' it blows lightly, a breeze blows

dahk'iliwh put your hand on something!

dahk'ilun-ding a place on New River opposite Quimby

dahk'iłkis he put his hand on something

dahk'iłqoch' he threw it onto something

dahk'iłtse:tł' he broke it (a bone) in two

dahk'is'a:n arrowhead(s), obsidian point(s)

dahk'ischwa'n plant growing on a tree, epiphyte (e.g. mistletoe)

dahk'islay a hand lies, hands lie on something

dahk'islay arrowheads, obsidian points

dahk'islay-kyoh mistletoe

dahk'isxa:n-q'it where the trail goes up Bald Hill

dahk'isxung (a tree is) standing on top

dahk'it'us he cuts it in two, cuts (e.g. finger) off

dahk'iwe'winta:n he built a fishing platform

dahk'iwe:wita:n fishing platform

dahk'iwingxa' something is standing

dahma:' dogwood (Cornus nuttalli)

dahmine' hanging moss, yellow tree lichen (Ramalina), used for dye

dahna'de:łwa:tł' he poured it

dahna'diwidgit they all ran back

dahna'diwił'a' he set another on it

dahna'diwiłde'tł'-te she'll fan it (bark) in a winnowing basket

dah-na'widmehł he was swimming along back on top (of the water)

dahna'wila he has put it (charcoal) on (the fire) again

dahna'xwe'iłtiwh they lay him out on it

dahna:diwidya:y it went back

dahna:diwilt'a:ts' two strips cut off of each side of the backbone of a salmon

dahna:diwing'a' it (an arrow) stuck up

dahna:k'idiwich'e'ił-te the wind will blow gently

dah-na:k'indiyun'-te they shall come back from above eating

dahna:k'ine'iwh'e:tł' I lay them crosswise

dahna:k'ixo:nchway he pawed the dirt

dahna:sa'a:n they (deer) are piled up

dahna:sita:n a long, stick-like object lies on top

dahna:tita'n they (boards) come to lie on top of something here and there

dahna:whdixits' I flew back down

dahna:xodiwing'a:n they ran back

dah-naywehskil (cloud, fog, smoke) hovers on top of something

dahnaywiłkilił-te fog will stay

dahne:lno' they are standing up on top

dahnintsah sit down above it! (idiomatically) go fishing with a net!

dahniwil'e:tł' ridge poles (or ridge pole) in a living house

dahno'diwinta'tł he stepped on it

dahno'ninde:tł' they sat (on a roof)

dahno:te:de'tł'-te they will fish

dahsil'e:tł' roofing, shingles

dahsila they lie on top

dahsiłte:n (it is) lying on something

dahsite:n it (e.g. animal) lay up (on a slope)

dahsitune:-q'it name of a resting place near Bald Hill

dahsixa:n a filled container lies on top somewhere

dahtł'o:l' wild grapes; grapevine

dahto:' dew, there is a dew

dahts'isde' fine particles of soot; soot used in tattooing

dahun'di-de' when (in the future)?

dahun'di-dung' when (in the past)? how long ago?

dahun'di-ye: where

dahungwhe'eh somewhere

dahungwho'- at some time; to some extent

dahwe:xa:n I set (a filled container) up

dahwehsdil they stayed on top

dahwehsla:l it floated

dahwehsle:l it swam around in one place

dahwid'a:n deer-snaring station, owned or claimed by a family

dahwidil they were floating on top

dahwidqot' it was tumbling

dahwila:l it was floating

dahwilahł-ding Eureka

dahwile:l it was floating on top

dahwilin they lie piled on top

dahwilin-ding name of a former village, near Supply Creek

dahwilła:t it jumped on

dahwilto'n it (dog) jumped (onto a house)

dahwinde:tł' they (birds) flew down, alighted

dahwing'ay it was sitting there

dahwixil floats on a gill net, seine

dahxo:ng'a:n they jumped (onto something)

dahxodiwehs'e'n one could see

dahya'diwing'a:n they took it away

dahya'k'ide'iłchwo:k they sweep them (acorn husks) away

dah-ya'k'iłtse:tł' someone threw it up (onto the roof)

dahya'k'iłwa'tł' they chopped it off

dahya'wing'ay he sits above; (idiomatically) he is fishing (with a net)

dahya:dze' frost, ice on trees

dahya:na'wehs'a' he sat up on it

dahya:ya'wing'e:tł' they are sitting up

dahyide'wiwh something always carries it off

dahyik'iłje:w driftwood

dahyik'iłjeh (driftwood) is piling up, has piled up

dahyik'ingya'n it has chewed it up

dahyiłkit (cloud, fog, smoke) hovers on top of something

daw no!

daw-sho' it's impossible!

daydi what? what thing?

daydi-mich'ing' why? because of what?

daydi-wung what for? why? for what reason?

daywhe'eh nothing

daywho' something

daywho'-xwa:'a:ne type of sucking doctor

de I see!

de here, this

-de' if, when (in the future)

de'de'ił'e:tł' she shoves them into the fire

de'de'iłqe:t he sticks it into the fire

de'diłeh he bakes (bread, cake, etc.)

de'diwi'awhił they put it in the fire

de'diwilła:t he ran into the fire

de'diwiłte:n he put it (animal) into the fire

de'diwime:tł' she threw them into the fire

de'iwhk'il I break it off

de'k'idiliwh he or she puts several things into the fire (specifically: he or she roasts something (e.g. eels) on coals)

de'mine:de'iyo:t he chases them into the fire

de'xodiłwa:tł' he threw him in the fire

de:- close past something, touching something

de:-di- into the fire

de:di-dé come to find out..., it turned out that...

de:ding'ahwh put it (e.g. stone) into the fire!

de:dintiwh put it (a long object) in the fire

de:di-qa:l sun

de:diwhq'a:s I am throwing it (round object) into the fire

de:diwiłiq' bread, baked goods

de:dixwo-yidahch'ing-wing'a'-mił when the sun has risen well above the mountains to the east, about 9 a.m.

de:dixwo-yinuqa-wing'a'-mił when the sun has risen to a point high in the sky to the south-southeast, around noon or a little before

de:k'idiwhlich I urinate into the fire

de:k'idiwidlay (eels) are roasted

de:-nohoł-yiduq northeast

de:-nohoł-yiduq-yide' north

de:-nohoł-yinuq-yiduq east, in an eastward direction from the center of Hoopa Valley

de:-nohq'it the sky; God, Heaven (metaphorically)

de:nohq'it-xotse:lin' (Christian) sacramental wine

de:sxa:n today

de:wiming' it has filled up

de:xits' I fell, dropped (off of something)

de:yłmit I tipped it over, inverted it

dehsmin it is full

dehxosin-mił after a very short time, soon

dich' valley quail (Lophortyx californicus, California Quail)

dich'e:ch' it is rough, pimply

dichwil tanned deerhide, leather, buckskin

dichwil it's dull, blunted (e.g., knife)

didzit it's short

digyung here (in this location), this place

dijit string of small white seashells, worn by women on ceremonial occasions

dila:n water dog, a small species of salamander

dilchwe:k ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)

dilchweh-k'e'ildil-me' Horse Mountain

dilchwehs-ji-ding name of a village located at the mouth of Madden Creek

dilma' it is turning grey

dilma:y it is grey, tan

dilq'its' it is sparkling (as sparks in a fire)

dilqay whitish, greyish

dilqiwh forked-horn deer

diltsow summer deerhide

diltsow orange-colored, brown, the color of summer deerhide

dilwa:sh Tolowa Indians

dilwa:wh it (animal) makes a noise, "talks" (frog croaking, bird singing)

dilwhin it is blackish, dark-colored

dilxich fawn, yearling; hide of a young deer

dilxich white-spotted (as the hide of a fawn)

dilxich-dilma:y type of deerskin (grey deer)

dilxich-ky'a:tilchwiw spotted salamander (Dicamptodon ensatus)

dilxich-łiqay white deerskin

diłdije:w it is sticky (like tar, pitch, glue)

diłma:s roll it over!

diłming fill it up!

diłq'ung lean it up (against something)!

-diłwa different from; meeting and passing

dima:s it (e.g. log) is rolling over

dime:n it is sharp

dime:n thorn; diamonds (gems or suit in playing cards)

dime:n-nay'ay it (child) is hard to please, fussy

dimuch straw

dina' milkweed (Asclepius)

dina:n (steep) slope, anything sloped (e.g., the steep pitch of a roof)

dinch'e:k' a type of mushroom with a strong taste

dinch'e:k' it is hot-tasting, peppery, gingery

dinday bullet

dinday-michwo Indian Devil bird

dine something (animal, chicken, thing) makes a sound, squeals, cries, buzzes, crows

-ding at that place, at that time

dingq'och' it is sour, salty

dingq'och' sour clover

dingq'och'-mił-wilchwe:n sourdough

dining'xine:wh Hupa-speaking people, Hupa Indians

diniwh manzanita (Arctostaphyolos viscida)

diniwh-ding Mud Springs

diniwh-t'un'-tah-ding Chimariko village located at Taylor's Flat (Del Loma)

dink' four

dink'idiminłung forty

dink'i-tehs'ay four-pointer

-dinung facing...

diq'a:n it (e.g., board) leans against something

diq'a:n ridge

diq'a:n-me:ning'e:tł' cantalope, muskmelon

diq'a:n-tah-k'iya:wh-kyoh grosbeak, finch (Pheucticus melanocephalus, Black-headed Grosbeak)

dita:n it is thick

dita:n nickel (coin)

dits'e:q' it is gummy, sticky

-ditse' pointed toward, headed toward

ditsik unshelled acorns

ditsik-łe:na:ya'usow a dance performed with the ceremonial basket-quiver (na'wehch) during the Jump dance

diwa'niwinchwe'n he got selfish

diwa:n untanned deerhide (dried and ready for tanning)

diwa:whchwing' I'm selfish

diwe:ch'a:t I got sick

diwehs'a'-te it (mountain) will go across

diwhch'a:t I'm aching, I am sick

diwhchwit I'm going to shoot off (an arrow), let go (the arrow release)

diwhdiniwh I have sexual desire, I lust for women, have an erection

diwh-kyoh grouse (Dendragapus obscurus, Blue Grouse)

diwhkyoh-chweh-ding North Trinity Mountain

diwhłeh I make a line running off

diwhna:n I'm tipping it, sloping it, giving it a certain slope or pitch (e.g. boards on a roof)

diwhne I say something, make noise, speak

diwhqiwh I break (e.g., a tree limb) off at the fork

diwhqos I bite it off (something brittle, crunchy)

diwhtik I'm pinching it

diwhts'e:n I'm stiff in the joints

diwhxuts' I'm biting something

diwidimit it (e.g. canoe) has tipped over, capsized, gone belly-up

diwidwa:s strips of abalone shell sewn onto a woman's dance skirt

diwila:t it floated away

diwilda:l it was running along

diwilwhe'n it turned blackish

diwiłdijeh-te it will get sticky

diwinch'e:k' it has gotten hot-tasting, it has gone sour

diwindzit it got short

diwingq'och' it is getting sour

diwinta'n it got thick

diwints'e:q' it got gummy

diye yes

diysh-ta:ng'a:-ding name of village at Tish-Tang Point

diyshta:ng'a:-din-nilin Tish Tang a Tang Creek

diywho'-wung-xiniwidyewh conversation

do not

do: miq'eh na:d'a'i-heh do not mind it

do: no:xo:wehs'e'n it could not be seen that far

do:-'o:dla'n quitting

do:-'owha'n it (sickness) will not take place

do:'owhlung I'm stopping (doing something), I quit (working)

do:-...-dung' before..., until...

do:-...heh no ...-ing (ever)! don't ever ...!

do:-heh not at all

do:k'iwile old woman

do:lya:-chwing woman who has lost a child

do:lyaw widower

do:-ła:n-ts a few, not many, not much, just a little

do:m at some unexpected time

do:-me:ne:who'n I am not fit for it, up to it

do:-mide'xine:wh-mining late fall month; November

do:-na:lte' it's easy, "no sweat"

do:-niwhq'iw I do not behave well, he is mean, ready to fight (old-fashioned word)

do:-tah perhaps, maybe

do:we:se:le' I came not to have enough (money), went bankrupt

do:-widwhil-heh no shouting!

do:wilde'n loneliness

do:wile (he) is poor, weak

do:-wile:-xw feebleness, poverty

do:-witsit-widwa:t whole wheat flour

do:-xo'osday dead person (polite term)

do:xo'osdaytahch'ing'- wuna'way type of sucking doctor

do:-xohsle' it became none, it disappeared, it has gone, it was used up

do:-xoh-whiłtsis you always quarrel with me

do:-xoling it isn't possible, one can't, one shouldn't

do:-xowidqot-heh no poking him! (idiomatically) don't devil him!

dondol-kyoh a large ocean bird (perhaps a pelican)

dongq'a' before

dongq'a'-tsit wait a minute! hold on! first let's...

dongq'e'eh not yet

dun'-ts'isday fishing camp

dundi who?

dung' springtime (archaic term)

-dung' just past, when (in the past)

dungwhe'eh no one

dungwho' someone

dunłundi how many? how much?

dunłungwho' some number of, several

duxa:tł'e' salmonberries (Rubus spectabilis)

duxo:' somehow, in some way

duxo:-'a:'uniw he dies (commonest euphemism)

duxo:-'a:ch'idiyaw he died (commonest euphemism)

duxo:-'aht'ing it dies (commonest euphemism)

duxo:'whe'eh some way

duxo:q'i-'a'dilaw doing something improper during a religious dance, such as joking or blaspheming

duxwe:di how? in what way?

duxwe:di-hit why?

duxwe:di-ma:n for what reason? why?

dó:ng' really, truly, indeed, for sure, it is so, honestly

-e' in

e:- towards, against

-e:n' even with each other, side-by-side, in parallel rows

-e:ne:q' behind, at the back of

-e:q' inside

-e:w under; hidden, secret (metaphorically)

-e:-xunding close to something

ga:chwung' raven

gehs-kyoh elk (Redwood dialect or archaic term)

-ginje' gristle, cartilige

gya' finding out, being revealed to be, lo!

gya'a:y it seems

gya'awh I wonder

hay the, that, the one who (is, does)

hay na'xołte' the helper who takes care of the doctor (k'ite:t'aw) during the Kick Dance

hay na:mitł'a'-ding after that time

haya:ł then, after that, and then

hayah there (in that location)

hayah-de' at that time (in the future)

hayah-dung' at that time (in the past)

hayah-mił then, after that, and then

hayahujit thereupon, and then

hayi-wung for that reason, that is why

hayi-xwe:-mił and so on, every now and then

hayixwo-ch'ondehsne' he paid attention

hayixwo-niwhsin I pay attention

he'ile:n spirit who rules Hell

he:yung hello

-heh despite, even if

hijit and, and then

hił together with

-hit at the time that..., while..., when..., during...

hun' river, specifically the Trinity River

hun'-q'eh-ch'idilye White Deerskin Dance, specifically the Boat Dance

look!

jahda too (much)

je'niłt'ow he pulled the cork out

je'wiłt'iwh he split it apart

je:- apart

je:dwa:tł' it opened

je:k'ił it (board, etc.) splits, cracks apart

je:lo' storage basket

je:lo'-ding Amaikiaram

je:lq'its' it is cracked open

je:lwa:tł' (it has been) split in half

je:na'uldixit they (dancers) separate again

je:na:k'iliwh part your hair (in the middle)!

je:na:yde:tł' we separated

je:nah up above, high up, upstairs

je:nahch'ing'-ch'ixine:wh he is praying (modern church prayers)

je:nahch'ing'-me'-ya'xine:wh church (modern, Christian)

je:nah-na:lah second name for kingbird

je:ng'k'ilay a widow who has let her hair grow out half-way, in a "dutch-cut"

je:ngyay it (log) opened

je:nis day

je:no:k snail

je:nok-mixontaw' snail shell

je:sil-ch'ił'a:n he makes a noise

je:sil-nowh'awh I make a noise, racket

je:sil-sa'a:n there is a noise, rumbling sound, racket

je:tiwhqot I poke them apart

je:winta'n it (a basket, long object) spread open

je:xo-ma'-ding shortribs

je:ya'ut'us they cut it in two

je:ya'wiłwul they split them in two

jeh pitch, tar

jeh-k'iya:ts'e' pitchwood

jehmil thin strips of pitchy fir

jeh-ya:n a large greyish-brown cricket, found in the mountains among the acorn groves

jikin chicken

jilqiwh something forked, pulled apart at the fork

jiłtsił split it, pound it apart (with a rock, maul)!

jime:l a type of lizard (Sceloporus, scaly lizard)

jime:li-mike' braided knot, used on the fringe of a woman's traditional apron (tsang)

-jin belonging to

jingkyo:wit-qa:l sun

jingkyow there is sunshine

jit just now

jiwa'a'awh she always cracks them (acorns)

jiwa:- splitting apart, cracking open

jiwa:k'isdixit' ripe nut

jiwa:k'iwhliwh I'm cracking acorns open

jiwhk'il I'm splitting it, tearing it in two

jiwhq'its' I crack it open

jiwhqiwh I pull it apart at the fork

jiwingwoł it got round

jiwingwoł it's getting round

jiwol round like a ball, spherical

jiwol ball, round object

jiwolch-na'k'iłtsil basketball

jiwolch-na'k'iłtul football

jiwolch-na'k'iłwul baseball

jo' here! take it!

jung muddy water

jung-nehwa:n brown

k'e'da'ay doctoring by sucking, sucking out pains

k'e'itł'o:wh she (always) made baskets

k'e'je:w he is gluing it to something

k'e'k'e'iłtsil he pounds it off

k'e'niwił'e:tł' he leaned them against it

k'e'niwiłt'iky' she tied it (a basket) to it (a tree)

k'e'q'ay he rubs against it

k'e'sindil they climb something

k'e'wiłna' she cooked something

k'e:ch'a:wh I tied a buckskin dress at the hip

k'e:da'ay-mił-ch'iłwe fishing club

k'e:dmił they flopped down

k'e:dze'-nehwa:n corn (cob)

k'e:k'ilye:ch' poison oak (Rhus diversiloba)

k'e:k'iłwuł chop it down! chop it off!

k'e:lkya' another term for abalone-shell dress

k'e:lna' cooking

k'e:na'xołqoch' he raised him and shoved him down

k'e:nił'a lean it against something!

k'e:niwh it is thundering

k'e:sde' lumps of acorn meal that are left over after pounding, coarse leavings (of acorns) after sifting

k'e:se:ge' I've become ill

k'e:silła:t you ran up on it

k'e:singqoch' you climbed up the tree

k'e:tsah-xowhsin I'm difficult, rebellious

k'e:tse:'ił'ul wooden headrest, used by men in the sweathouse

k'e:tsił'uł rest your head! put your head down on a headrest, pillow!

k'e:w-'iwh'awh I'm hiding it

k'e:witsa:s laziness

k'e:w-wung-wilme'n blind for hunting

k'e:xołya:n one who understands things

k'e:ya:ning'e:tł' they were leaning up

k'ehłtsa:n unmarried adolescent girl, female teenager

k'ehniwh thunder

k'ich'il' feathers

k'ich'ing' tipped over, turned to one side, upside down

k'ich'ing'-no:na:'indiy he rolled over

k'ich'ing'-nong'awh turn (round object) over!

k'ich'int disease, sickness

k'ich'int-tehsyay a disease, epidemic is going around

k'ich'o:dne' help, helping someone

k'ich'o:ya'ne' the two who help the lead singer in the White Deerskin Dance

k'ich'ong there is a sound like a rock falling into water, it plops

k'ich'owhne I'm helping someone, I'm a helper

k'ichwa grave

k'ida'di(ng)-nehsnoy the two fins close to the mouth of a salmon (at its neck)

k'ida:ma:ts'e' a wreath of myrtle twigs worn as a headdress

k'ida:se' burnt skin, leather, singed hair

k'ida:y' it blooms, it is in flower, a flower

k'ide:-kin' carved elk-horn spoon, used by men

k'ide:nilgit grizzly bear medicine

k'ide:s game with hair singed off

k'ide:ts'eh-ya:xołchwe he translates for them, explains it to them

k'idil bell

k'idił it rings (once)

k'idiłqits' he is crazy, a crazy person

k'idiłwis he drills for fire

k'idiłwisi'q'it Chilula gathering and hunting camp

k'idingk'il-e it (water) broke out (of the banks of the river)

k'idingwhe' he dug off

k'idits he's twisting, twining (string, rope)

k'idiwhla:n I'm growling, scolding somebody

k'idiwilq'a'n inner wall of a living house

k'idiwisch'e butterfly

k'idiwun-na:way she dances the doctor-training dance

k'idmut (water) is boiling

k'idnot it (fire) blazes

k'ido:łtso'n they (trees) were flipped

k'ido:niwh curse; hereditary disease

k'idol there is a loud, crashing sound (as of a log falling)

k'idongxwe Indian Devil, witch, sorcerer; "deviling", witchcraft poison which can be cured by an Indian doctor

k'ige'ch strawberries

k'ige:s Indian sunflower

k'igich it makes a crackling sound on being eaten (e.g. carrots or gristle)

k'ije:'ding-xa:ng'ay belly fin (of salmon)

k'ijiw'-na:me:-ding Chilula summer camp

k'ijiwe:xo-sita:n brisket (of deer)

k'ijiwolch ball, round object

k'ijut' there is a wet, floppy sound

k'ik'e:t' there is a creaking, squeaking sound (e.g., a squeaky door)

k'ikine' dead tree (especially a standing conifer)

k'ila:dosch'e' heavy bark of conifers

k'ila:jonde' hazel, hazelnuts (Corylus californica)

k'ilk'e:xe' Frog's other name in the story of Coyote and Frog

k'ilkya'n she became pregnant

k'ilo hail, hailstone, ice

k'ilwhot' a scar formed, it healed

k'ilxich spots

k'iłch'iwh peel it! strip it off!

k'iłch'ixa:nyay he fights

k'iłch'ixa:ywilay they commenced to fight

k'iłch'ixawh'awh I'm fighting

k'iłchwe she gives birth

k'iłdik'ikyoh-k'iwilt'a:ts' a type of robe mentioned in myths

k'iłdik'-kyoh large red-headed (pileated) woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus)

k'iłdol he makes it crash, makes a crashing sound

k'iłgide' rotten wood

k'iłiwh small round cake made from ground grass seeds (archaic term)

k'iłiwhin black acorn meat

k'iłixun deer (general term), specifically blacktail deer (Odocoileus hemionus); venison

k'iłixun-łiqay white deerskin

k'iłixun-me:ne:q'-nint'ik' deer's backstrap

k'iłixun-tehk'iwilky'o:ts' "Indian dumplings" (boiled deer meat mixed with dough)

k'iłjil he is crazy, in a daze, out of his mind

k'iłkit sheriff, policeman

k'iłma' he is tanning a skin, hide

k'iłmowh he is snoring

k'iłmuq' it makes a popping noise, pops something

k'iłmuq'-kyoh swamp weed, aralia (Aralia californica)

k'ił-na:dil wolf (Canis lupus)

k'iłna:dil-k'iwungxoya:n mythical being

k'iłq'e:ts large grasshopper, smaller than locust

k'iłqos gooseberries (Ribes sp.)

k'iłte' he gets killed

k'iłtehł spread out a mat! spread a blanket! prepare a bed!

k'iłts'os Indian paintbrush (Castilleja wightii)

k'iłts'os-nehwa:n prongs (ceremonial headgear)

k'iłtsay' it is seasoned, dried

k'iłut' there is a slapping sound (of something hitting water), (fish) makes a flopping sound (with its tail)

k'iłwe evil spirits, little beings who live in the water and cause sickness

k'iłwe:-ch'e:'iłtiwh type of sucking doctor

k'iłwe:-ding Sa'ał

k'iłwe:-kyoh spider

k'iłwe:kyoh-mila' lupine (Lupinus)

k'iłwe:-mitits'e' dragonfly

k'iłwe:-q' foolishly, not seriously, in a funny, joking, bantering, frivolous way

k'iłwe:-whiwiłwe' I have a fever, I am sick with a disease that causes a high fever (e.g. pneumonia, typhoid)

k'iłxa:l freshly skinned (deer) hide, stretched out to dry (on drying frame)

k'ima:w medicine (general term, referring both to traditional Indian medicines and to modern pharmaceuticals)

k'ima:w-ch'iłchwe an herbal doctor, modern medical doctor; the person who recites the formula and prepares the medicine in the Brush Dance

k'ima:w-ch'ixo:ne he knows a medicine

k'ima:w-łiq'a:w wild larkspur

k'ima:w-mił-xe'e:k'iłyo:l he makes medicine

k'ima:w-xoniwhsin I know a medicine

k'imide' the belly part (in cutting fish)

k'imide'-ding Chenach

k'imił throw them down! sling them down!

k'imiłna:tul' braid used for fringes of apron (tsang)

k'imit'-nehwa:n watermelon

k'imut' something bursts, a gun goes off

k'ina' Yurok

k'ina'ch'ixixe:l' Solomon's Seal (Polygonatum)

k'ina'ch'ixixe:l'-nehwa:n tomato

k'ina'diday salal berries (Gaultheria shallon)

k'ina'diday he is picking, gathering

k'ina'q'i-na'ay Yurok style medicine used during Brush Dance

k'ina'-tahxw-hun' Klamath River

k'ina'-xontah-ding name of a Chilula village

k'ina:'-sonsol minnow

k'ina:dla:l dreaming, a dream

k'ina:k'iwhda I have my first menstruation

k'ina:kil slave, debt-slave

k'ina:whla:lil I'm dreaming along

k'inahłdunts'e:y'-dahk'iswin-ding places where Flower Dance sticks are taken and left after the dance is over

k'inahsni passing in front of someone

k'inawhla:l I'm dreaming (about something)

k'inchwiwh-q'it name of village near the mouth of Mill Creek

k'ine'wiłde'n he lit it up

k'ine:nde'n it lit up

k'inehsnoy a basket design

k'inehst'a:n tan oak, tan-bark oak (Quercus densiflora)

k'inehsya:n older people, adults, grown-up generation

k'ing'kya:w white oak, post oak (Quercus garryana)

k'ingyo:wh it fell to pieces

k'inilt'a:ts' cut up and dried venison, jerky

k'inilyiw cross-hatched basket design equivalent to the Yurok "slanting stripes" design

k'iniłt'ik' stretch it! string it out straight!

k'iniłt'us cut it up (e.g., venison, salmon) for drying!

k'iniłtsis put out the fire! blow it out!

k'ininde:n it shines (e.g. a light bulb, star, sun), there is a light

k'ining'ay poles running over the fire in a living house

k'iningya'n-e: (deer) come to feed

k'inint'ik' wild tea (bush)

k'iniq'eh-xw in a good way

k'initsis the fire is going out

k'iniwh what one hears about, news, events that are talked about

k'iniwh-'a:diwhchwe I listen, I hear the news

k'iniwhniw I'm choking on something

k'intehłts'it it (tree) fell

k'intiyo:di-ch pigmy owl (Glaucidium)

k'intiyo:t it chases, stalks (deer)

k'inunq' deer lick

k'inusni Karuk Indian

k'inusni-na'dil to dance in front of a line of dancers, a feature of the War Dance

k'iq'aylosch'e' the liver of an eel

k'iq'e:n he is twisting a hazel withe (to make it flexible)

k'iq'eh-na:diwul "blind", headdress made of wolf-skin worn around the head by dancers in the White Deerskin Dance

k'iq'it-dahdiwilin the two pieces on a salmon's back from neck to part opposite navel

k'iq'its' it cracks, pops, snaps, crackles

k'iqiwh lightning flashes, there is lightning

k'iqo:n there is the sound of dry hide crackling

k'iqojin lumps (on the body, as on a frog), bumps, unevenness (on the skin)

k'iqots' it is brittle, crunchy, crackling

k'iqude'-nehwa:n carrot

k'iqude'-tse:lnehwa:n beet

k'isa'n he beats his wife up, abuses his wife, he's a wife-beater

k'isa:y (there is) a rattling, rustling sound (as of dry leaves)

k'isdaw they (fish, eels) vanished, stopped being caught

k'isdilma'ts' we made a circle

k'isdiya:n someone who is old, old person, elder

k'isdiya:n-chwing widow

k'ise:ge'-me'liwh nurse

k'ise:qot a woven hood or head-net worn by important dancers in the religious dances

k'isehłdil I rang it

k'isehłlay I rested my hand someplace

k'isehłme:ch I boiled it

k'isehłmut' I have burst it

k'isehłsa:y I rattled something

k'isehłt'e'ts' I roasted, parched (seeds)

k'isehłwa:tł' I chopped something, threshed seeds

k'isehłxa:l I stretched a hide to dry

k'isinto'-k'iwa:t wooden dish on which meat was served

k'isiwhdile:y I'm freezing, chilled to the bone

k'islay a hand lies, hands lie somewhere

k'isle'-te they will catch many (eels)

k'isol it is hollow, makes a hollow sound

k'ist'ay'-chwing jay, bluejay (Cyanocitta stelleri, Steller's jay)

k'ist'ay'-chwung' crow

k'ist'ay'-kyoh Clark crow (Nucifraga columbiana, Clark's Nutcracker)

k'ist'ay'-mili-ch small bird hawk (Accipiter cooperii, Cooper's Hawk)

k'iste:n bed

k'isxa:n a tree stands

k'it'a'ułchwe posts supporting the inner door of a living house

k'it'e' it's getting cooked, ripe

k'it'o:w paddle (for canoe)

k'it'un'-me' foot of Bald Hill

k'it'ung' maple (Acer macrophyllum)

k'it'ung' leaf, leaves

k'it'ung'-dingq'och' redwood sorrel (Oxalis oregana)

k'ita:ltsit shallow soaking pit in riverbank sand used for leaching acorns, "dirt pan"

k'itawhtsit I'm leaching acorns, soaking acorns to remove tannic acid (by pouring water over them)

k'ite'iwhdits I start twining, twisting

k'ite'iwhliwh I feel along

k'ite:dinot it started to blaze

k'ite:lqot' they (feathers) were bent in a row

k'ite:lwe:l pickets, stakes driven into the river, in a fish-dam

k'ite:sehłit I started a fire

k'ite:sehłniw I got an erection

k'ite:siłda:wh you are driving a car; you are spinning a top

k'ite:skyo:t I stole it

k'ite:t'aw sucking doctor, Indian doctor (general term)

k'ite:t'aw whing' mił k'e:diwid'ay sucking doctor's doctoring song

k'ite:wehskyo:t they were stolen

k'ite:whe' he started digging

k'ite:witse fence

k'ite:yo:wh (water) surged, ran along stormily

k'itehłk'il he prepared eels to dry (flattened them out)

k'itehłqoch' he threw a stick, spear

k'itehłtsa:s he whipped

k'itidlut' there is a ripping sound (as of an old rag)

k'itilkyo:t thief

k'itiłma'ts' put them in a circle! circle them around something!

k'itiłtsil pitcher (in baseball)

k'itiłtsił throw, toss (a rock)! pitch the ball! (in baseball)

k'itiłxiw tracer, tracker

k'itin a small tail

k'itintse build a fence!

k'itiqowh (animal) scampers along

k'itiquch stick game, shinny

k'itise smart, ambitious, capable, superior

k'itiwh'aw I'm singing along, singing a song

k'itiwhqowh I am tumbling

k'itiwhtits' I'm walking with a cane

k'itiwhtł'owh I'm starting to weave a basket

k'itiwhwah I'm shaking something, sifting, winnowing (acorns, after pounding them into meal)

k'itiwhyohł I'm swearing, cursing, making bad medicine

k'itiyawh a herd (of deer) moves along grazing, eats as it moves along

k'itł'oy weaving; basketry

k'ito:q'it Paddle Mountain, opposite Orleans

k'its'a' there is a roar

k'its'e:y the youngest child in a family

k'its'uq' there is a sucking sound (like a bunch of eels put together)

k'itsa:-'iłqay bluejay

k'itsa:y large bird hawk, red hawk (Buteo jamaicensis, Red-tailed Hawk)

k'itsa:y-xotits'e' a cane used to keep rattlesnakes away; a stick which has had a medicine formula said over it

k'itse War Dance

k'itse:qe:ch'e'-nehwa:n squash, pumpkin

k'itsiwung'-tł'ohł headband worn by doctors, made of buckskin with yellowhammer feathers attached

k'ituqe' the middle part of an eel, when cut up for eating

k'ituq-na'way go-between, mediator, one who settles a dispute

k'itust leached acorn flour, before cooking

k'iwa'ahł he was still singing

k'iwa'ischwit he broke it off (a shoot from a plant)

k'iwa'nich a broken-off tree, snag

k'iwa:na:'iłtiwh he/she gives something back

k'iwa:t large rough-woven basketry pan, winnowing tray (approximately 2 feet across and 4 to 6 inches deep); any large pan

k'iwahday' type of medicinal herb

k'iwahday'ch a type of weed

k'iwha:n I'm eating

k'iwhchwiq' I'm stringing (dried fish, beads, etc.) on a line, skewering things on a pole

k'iwhde:s I'm singing off hair, I am cutting hair

k'iwhdik' I'm cracking acorns, I'm pecking at something

k'iwhk'ił I'm tearing (bird, fish) open (to clean it)

k'iwhkya:n I am pregnant

k'iwhliwh I am jealous

k'iwhłiw I'm painting something, spreading (paint), smearing something (with paint)

k'iwhme I pick, gather, collect them (fruit, berries, nuts, acorns, etc.)

k'iwhnay I cook something, prepare it for eating

k'iwhniwh I hear about something, I hear the news

k'iwhq'a:s I am driving stakes (with a rock)

k'iwhq'its I crack it, make it make a cracking noise

k'iwhse:ge' I am ill

k'iwht'oh I'm paddling (a canoe)

k'iwht'oq' I'm working flint

k'iwhtł'oy I'm weaving (a basket)

k'iwhts'ay I'm see-sawing

k'iwhts'os I'm sucking something (e.g.. water through lips, with a sucking noise)

k'iwhtsa:s I am lazy, unenthusiastic (about things in general)

k'iwhtsay' I'm drying something (deerhide, salmon), seasoning something (acorns, wood)

k'iwhtse I'm dancing the War Dance

k'iwhtsił I'm pounding it lightly, hammering it, hitting it (with a stone maul, rock)

k'iwhtsit I'm pounding acorns

k'iwhxa:wh I'm pulling a dip-net to shore

k'iwhxe'x navel fins (of a salmon)

k'iwhxis I fall down

k'iwich'a:wh waistband knot for woman's buckskin dress

k'iwich'e'il the wind blew along

k'iwidchwiq' things that have been strung on a line

k'iwidchwoq' they are strung on a line

k'iwide:s it had its hair singed off

k'iwidits Indian twine (made of iris), string, rope

k'iwidmut a short, barely audible fart, gasser (pops like acorns)

k'iwidmut' it burst

k'iwidnohł it is blazing

k'iwidq'e:n a twisted, softened hazel withe

k'iwidqot a basket

k'iwidwol shield of elk-skin; war-jacket, armor made of arrowwood strips (kintł'its') woven together

k'iwidwolch a sash of fringed buckskin, worn by Indian doctors

k'iwidya'n eating

k'iwileh-ding Sregon

k'iwilma' tanned hide (of deer, fisher, otter, etc.)

k'iwilme:ch boiled meat

k'iwiloy' Indian doctor's kit

k'iwilte:l mat, traditional Indian bed

k'iwilte:l it was paved

k'iwilts'o'ts' salmon bones; fish bone

k'iwiltsay' they (acorns) are getting dried (over a fire)

k'iwiłda'ułchwin crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos, Common Crow)

k'iwiłda'ułchwin-kyoh raven (Corvus corax)

k'iwiłtsa:y something dried, seasoned (hide, acorns)

k'iwimut' there was a bursting sound; a gun went off

k'iwina:liw male salmon; egg sucker

k'iwinch'o:n it plopped

k'iwindil it rang, made a ringing sound

k'iwindol it crashed

k'iwingqots' it snapped off, made a crackling sound

k'iwingxa' a tree came to stand, still stands

k'iwinjut' it flopped

k'iwink'e:t' it squeaked

k'iwinłut' there was a slapping sound

k'iwinsa:y it made a rattling sound

k'iwint'a'n leaves have come out, (tree) has come into leaf

k'iwinya'n acorn (general term)

k'iwinya'n-ma:'a' maggots that feed on acorns

k'iwinya'n-ya:n man, person, people, Indians

k'iwitł'o:n what has been woven, weaving, woven basket

k'iwitł'ohł she was weaving

k'iwitsit pounded acorns

k'iwiwhle:l I move my hand along

k'iwiyul what one eats (in general), food

k'iwiyul-mił-me:na'dinchwe:n medicine to make one want food, stimulate the appetite

k'iwiyung'il he eats time after time

k'iwo' "hooks", a crown of sea-lion tusks

k'iwo'-dahyiwilxa:l Easter lily

k'iwo'-me' the hook dancers in the Boat Dance

k'iwotł' there is a crunching sound (esp. of rocks)

k'iwowh-nesnoy "foam spot," a bad-luck place in the river

k'iwuna:yay'dil they are hunting

k'iwunay'iwhday I am hunting, pursuing something

k'iwunayda:-ch'itina:wh he goes hunting

k'iwunayda:-ya'tehsde:tł' they went hunting

k'iwun-ch'idne he prays, preaches

k'iwungxoya:n old man

k'ixa'king poles that the A-frame net sits in

k'ixa:q' A-frame lifting net, "trigger" net

k'ixa:q'ich small dip net

k'ixahle' drying frame

k'ixahs-wun-ts'isday hunting camp

k'ixich freckles, freckled

k'ixinay immortals, spirits, "angels."

k'ixolq'its' it is cracked back and forth

k'ixoniwh awareness, feeling (in the body)

k'ixowhnay I capture him, he is my captive

k'ixulo' a (deer's) hoof; deer-hoof rattle used by doctors (dried deer hooves, tied around a stick or bone)

k'ixus deer snare (set to catch deer)

k'ixut it collapses, drops (e.g. deadfall, house)

k'iya:ne:-q'eh a creek mentioned in Mary Marshall's description of the Gooseberry-place Brush Dance (location unknown)

k'iya:wh bird (general term)

k'iya:wh-me:da'ay scalps of redheaded woodpeckers, used for decoration

k'iya:wh-nayniłwul large speckled hawk (Falco mexicanus, Prairie Falcon)

k'iye again

k'iyintah Shasta Indians

k'iyo:y poisonous mushroom, poisonous plant, anything dangerous, strange or poisonous

k'iyohł scent

k'iyuch-łitsow bluebird (Sialia mexicana, Western Bluebird)

ke'-ne:s tree squirrel, grey squirrel (Ammospermophilus)

ke:nim eight

ke:nimdiminłung eighty

keh let me! let's!

kehłtsa:n-'isdiya:n unmarried woman, old maid

kila:gyah small woodpecker, California woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus, Acorn Woodpecker)

kila:gyah-ding Katipiara

kile:xich boy before puberty

kileh hello!

kilxawh ring-tail cat; civet (Bassariscus astutus)

kina:k'iwiłda'ul a girl becomes kinahłdung

kinahłdung a girl for whom a Flower Dance is held, a girl at puberty

kinahłdun-ts'e:y' a decorated split stick used as a rattle during the songs in the Flower Dance

kinch'e' box

king tree, timber (general term), stick

king łiqay deer-hoof rattle used by "tracers" (claivoyants)

king'a:gya:n (traditional) pipe for smoking tobacco

king'onq'ots pigeon berries (?) (Rhamnus sp., buckthorn, cascara)

king-k'idiłtsay' sapsucker, smallest woodpecker (Sphyrapicus varius, Yellow-bellied Sapsucker)

king-k'itoh burden basket with a "nest" of sticks, used for the temporary storage of acorns

king-qo:-ya:n woodworm

king-xołiwhin heavy forest

kin-jiwolch pole, rounded stick (esp. those used in the Jump Dance fence)

kinjiwolch-ne:s the cross-piece on the Jump Dance back-board

kin-na:lma:ts' storage cask

kin-na:way gambling, card game (traditional or modern)

kin-nawhle I'm gambling

kinsinto' the sweet sap of the sugar pine or maple; sugar

kinte:s'its I worked

kintł'its' a type of shrub with hard wood and fuzzy flowers (Holodiscus discolor)

kin-ts'iyo:ye the squeaky noise of two trees rubbing together in the wind

kinye:q'it hollow tree

kinyiq'i-kyoh-mingwah name of a Chilula village

kiwh an insulting gesture with the hand

kiyiq' hollow tree

ky'a'a'diq'ay he is training for power (at a tim)

ky'a'a:n there is a hole, it is empty, hollow

ky'a'a:n a hole, cave

ky'a:- away from

-ky'a:-ch'ing' away from

ky'a:da:ne:-kyoh big white and black spotted salamander

ky'a:dawhne I'm gathering, picking up (acorns, apples, round objects)

ky'a:tilchweh cry out!

ky'a:tilchwiw a type of salamander

ky'a:tiwilchwe:l (someting is) crying along

ky'o'didxit he is begging for something

ky'o'diłxit lawyer

ky'o'niłkis he threw a spear at it, speared at something

ky'o'niwinga:n he committed adultery with someone

ky'o'wingwha:l he hooked for it

ky'o:'ohłkis boxer

ky'o:diłts'o'ts'-ne' make a kissing noise!

ky'o:diwhye:wh I'm whistling (at someone, something)

ky'o:law-king' fishing pole

ky'o:leh let there be lots of fish!

ky'o:mo:t' it bulges up (lump or knob on one's body, a hill, etc.)

ky'o:mo:t' bump or knobby place on the flesh

ky'oh porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum); porcupine quills; headdress of porcupine quills, worn by women in the Jump Dance

ky'ołtuł kick! kick at something!

ky'owh'its I'm shooting at something

ky'owhdilung I don't believe it

ky'owhlaw I'm fishing (with hook and line, "white-man's style")

ky'owhłkis let me spear for fish!

ky'oywung it (dog) is growling at something

kya' skirt, dress (general term)

kyo:mo'ch-ding lumpy knoll on Bald Hill

-kyoh big...

kyułne swamp robin, timber robin, thrush (Ixoreus naevius, Varied Thrush)

kyungkyoh hailstorm

kyungxowhtiw I'm begging for food, I'm bumming

-la:n with the help of, helping

la:whe' buckeye (Aesculus califonica)

lah seaweed (Porphyra perforata, etc.)

-lah opposite, contrary to

lich urine

with

ła' one

ła'a-ding sometimes, at times

ła'a-le:n a blanket

ła'ay-ding in one place, together, in one bunch

ła'ay-xw immediately, at once, right then; nothing but, only

ła'-dikin one hundred, one counting stick

ła'-k'itiyawh a herd of deer

ła'-me:nundiya:-dung' the year before

ła'-nite:l one dollar (refers to silver dollar coin)

ła'-tehs'ay spike, deer with single-pointed antler

ła'-yehch'iwinyay a set of ten dances in the Jump Dance

ła:n many, there is a lot

ła:n-łilt'ik' The Pleiades, "Seven Sisters" (constellation)

łah once, one time, one (instance of)

łah-ch'ing'-dina:n a type of decorative shell, like small scallops

łah-te:schwit a measurement from tip to tip of outspread arms; a "yard"

łah-xw merely, just, only, (in an) ordinary (way)

łahxw...sile'n just as if, as though

łahxw-hayah just for nothing, for no reason, as a joke

łe'diliw he kills something, he murders someone

łe:de'e:tł' a corner

łe:dsow a pile of things scraped together

łe:k'e'iwhxut' I sew them together

łe:k'iniwhye:ts' I'm tying them together (with a knot)

łe:k'iwhlaw I gather (firewood), collect (things), bring (people) together

łe:k'iwing'e:tł' said to be a variant of the ch'ah-ch'e:ng'e:tł' design (Goddard L&C, p.47)

łe:l-ding confluence, where two streams come together (specifically, where the Trinity and the South Fork join, near Salyer)

łe:lya' there is a draw, tie (in a fight, game)

łe:na'k'iniłme'n he built with rocks all around

łe:na'niłchwe:n she made (things) all around

łe:na'niłno' he stood (wood) up in a (vertical) bundle, he gathered things in sheaves

łe:na'niwilne:s they reached out and met together

łe:na'ut'iky' they circle clear around (joined together in a circle)

łe:na'xwe'iłtiwh they take her around

łe:na:'awhchwo:k I sweep them together

łe:na:k'e'iltsay' it (sand) dries together again

łe:na:k'e'iwhditł'o:wh I make several rounds of weaving

łe:na:k'ildiwhot' they (severed parts) grew back together

łe:na:l-ding Weitspus (part of present-day Weitchpec)

łe:na:łtehł full moon

łe:na:tł'o:n basket design, equivalent to the Yurok "elk" design

łe:na:wh neighbors, people living nearby; a village, rancheria

łe:na:wilay fire that has been built

łe:nawhge:s I'm raking things together in a pile

łe:nawhliwh I'm building a fire

łe:ne:tł'-te we'll come together, meet

łe:ningxe:n they came floating together

łe:nulya' there is an evening up, revenge

łe:nundiwa:tł' it shut

łe:wiling they (streams) flow together

łe:wiloy' they are tied together

łe:ya'ninyay (a group) came together, assembled

łe:yehch'iwingye:wh he jammed it (his face) in

łe:yehna:ldidow they drew back

łe:yme:tł' he rattled it

łehch-ma clay, grey-blue colored dirt

łehq'onch' salt

łehq'onch-yiditile goose (Anser sp.)

łeht'e:t'e' mud

łeht'e:t'e'-ch'iłchwe'-ding place upstream from Hostler Ranch village

łich'iwh sand, sandy dirt, dust

łich'iwh-'inahwh-ding name of a Chilula village

łich'iwh-ding name of a place featured in a story told by Oscar Brown

łige:y pine squirrel (Sciurus douglasi)

łin'tiloy' he cinches it up, tightens the cinch on a saddle

łinch'e' mare, bitch

łing' pet animal, dog, horse

łing'-wilda:l-q'it name of a resting place

łing'-wint'e'n she called him (her son)

łinte:sehłtik I squeezed it together

łintiwhtiwh I'm going to look for trouble; "I'll see about that!"

łiq'a:w it is fat

łiq'a:w hog

łiqay it is white

łiqay-wint'e plain white dentalia

łiqiwh it is forked, has prongs

łiqoch' it is hollow, empty, gaping

łisch' board, plank

łit smoke

łitso:wits penny

łitsow something is blue, green

łitsow-tehsyay pneumonia or pleurisy

łitsow-whinist'e'-yehk'inyo:xw diarrhea

łiwhin something is black

łiwhin black paint, made with charcoal

łiwhłoh I have boils

łiwhsow I'm scraping them together

łiwhxung I ejaculate

łiwuning alone, all by oneself

łixun it is sweet, good-tasting

łixun-niłchwin incense cedar (Libocedrus decurrens)

łiy bet, stakes, prize

ło' laugh, laughter

ło'-ch'iłchwe he laughs

ło'chwiwh seed flour (archaic term)

ło'kyoh sturgeon (Acipenser)

ło'kyoh-miqojine' basket design equivalent to the Yurok "sturgeon back" design

ło'n white-faced mouse (Peromyscus)

ło'n-łiqay white mouse

ło'-xotiwising'ił someone was laughing along the road

ło'-xowinse'n they laughed

ło'ya:wh creek trout (Salmon); any small fish

ło'ya:wh-yiditile duck (sp.)

ło:diłeh the throw (mud) at one another

ło:q' fish; salmon (Oncorrhynchus sp.)(general term)

ło:q' ma:tiliw the leader of the salmon

ło:q'-chwo "mockingbird" or "nightingale", chat (Icteria virens, Yellow-breasted Chat)

ło:q'i-nite:l shad (Dorosoma petenense)

ło:q'i-ya:n fish hawk (general term)

ło:q'-ma:'a' dog

ło:q'-ya:n bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)

ło:q'-yiditile river otter (Lutra canadensis)

łoh scab, sore

łungxo-'a:k'idyah he had died

łungxo-'a:k'it'ing death takes place (polite term)

łungxo-'a:yk'e'iniw people die

ma'a'diniłchwit he started to run off

ma'a:n-ch'itehs'e'n window

ma'a:nch'itehs'in'-ding-na:ng'e:tł' curtains

-ma'n across from, opposite

ma'ts' half-hoop that holds the net in a dip net

ma:'a' louse, parasite

ma:-ch'iqa:l White Deerskin Dance leader, the person who leads the movement of the dance by carrying the fire from one danceground to another

ma:-de:diwh'awh I burn incense root (angelica) in the fire and pray (at a ceremony)

ma:jiwilay' a mountain in Bald Hill country, northeast of Redwood Creek

ma:-k'itsit the woman who leads the acorn pounders in the Acorn Feast

ma:k'iwhkit I feed it

ma:lyeh-xw fixing it

ma:-me:lkya' slip, underskirt

-ma:n on account of..., for (that) reason

ma:-na'way Dance Leader

-ma:n-ch'ing' across from, opposite

ma:ning'ay backbone of salmon with meat attached

ma:-no:na'ky'a'awh-ding name of a resting place

ma:-yehk'ixowilt'ow underwear

ma:-yehwita:tł' socks

ma:yo mourning dove (Zenaida macroura)

mahn party of warriors

mawh it stinks! phew!

mayo:te:l creatures mentioned in Emma Lewis' story of Yima:ntiw'winyay

me'-ch'e'na:wh outhouse, (inside) bathroom

me'-ch'e:'iłsits' he's skinning (an animal)

me'-ch'iłt'oh skin (the animal)! flay it!

me'-ch'ing' into, towards the inside of it

me'-ch'iwa:t small bucket or bowl for acorn flour

me'-ch'ixine:wh telephone

me'-chwich-ch'iłchwe large burden basket, used for carrying firewood

me'-de'diłiw frying pan; pan where you put bread to cook

me'de'ilwa:wh they talk about it

me'dil (traditional) canoe, (modern) boat

me'dil-ding Village of Matilton; Captain John's Ranch

me'dilxwe the people of the village of Matilton (Me'dilding) and more generally the people of the upstream half of Hoopa Valley

me'iłqe:t they shove it (a canoe) to shore

me'imowh he used to land on it

me'isde' a rock that stands in the ocean at the mouth of the Klamath, mentioned in a love medicine formula told by Emma Lewis

me'isdil-ding a danceground at the downstream end of Ts'ilunding, where the dancers camp before going up Bald Hill on the last day of the White Deerskin Dance

me'isdil-din-nilin Beaver Creek

me'isdi-situn-ding place mentioned in Sam Brown's description of a vision he had

me'ist pestle, used to pound acorns

me'ist-na:k'iditin type of dragonfly, bigger than k'iłwe:mitits'e'

me'-k'e:'iłnay kitchen stove

me'-k'idilxuts he feels good (after drinking), he's high

me'-k'iłwul seed-beating basket, thresher into which seeds are beaten

me'k'iłwul-na'we female man-eating monster who lurks about old camping places

me'-k'iłyo:l-na'yo:s slide trombone

me'-k'isinto'-ch'iłchwe stone dish for catching oil of cooking eels or fish

me'k'isloy' he feathered an arrow

me'k'isłit he burned up along the mountain

me'-k'ita:'ułtsit acorn leaching pit

me'k'ite:mo:wh blister, a blister (which) has formed

me'k'itimowh a blister is forming

me'k'itł'o:wh he ties something on to it

me'k'iwiłtiw he measured it

me'-ky'a:n dishes

me'-ky'o'diłye:wh a whistle (modern)

me'-na'a'diłwich rocking chair

me'-na'a'dinehł'e:n mirror

me'-na'dil perform (a dance step) inside a circle of dancers (a feature of the Brush Dance)

me'-na:k'iwilwe:l clip, magazine (with bullets)

me'nilay they landed their canoes

me'ninta:n he landed his canoe, brought his canoe in to shore

me'niwit'il he is proud of it, he talks proudly about it

me'-no'k'itul stirrup

me'-no:na'mil clothes basket

me'-no:nundiwa:tł' clock strikes the hour

me'nus'ay brush house; wind-break; lean-to

me'-sa'k'ixawh eating bowl, basket

me'-sa:lts'ots' a dipper which one sips from

me'silła:t he ran uphill

me'-siłiq' pie; anything dough-like or mud-like in a container

me'-ta'dina:n drinking glass

me'-tehna:na'k'iłdiw place for washing; washroom, bathroom; bathtub

me'-widwa:l clock

me'wint'a'n he got stuck to it

me'xoste:n he took her up the mountain

me'xowinya'n he got suspicious of it.

me'-yehk'iłyo:l a whistle (modern)

me'-yehk'iwta:n soapstone bowl of a pipe

me:'iłte:l it is wide enough for it

me:ch'ine:s dart; a type of lizard (Gerrhonotus, alligator lizard)

me:chwilchwo:k brush used to sweep acorn flour (older term)

me:da'ay something extends against it; a (canoe) is beached, pulled to shore (still partly in the river)

me:da'ay-me' widow who has not yet cut her hair

me:da'ay-ne:s Chinese person

me:da'ay-wilchwil boy at puberty

me:de:chwe'n I got hungry for it

me:dił'a light it!

me:dimił-ding goal line

me:diwhchwing I'm hungry for it, want it

me:diwhdin I want it, crave it, want to have or do it

me:do:we:se:le' I came to feel tired, unable (to complete the job)

me:dziwhlay I hate it

me:k'e'iwhmil I throw (water) against it

me:k'iłxut' cover it up! hide it by covering!

me:k'inehsq'its' it is shining, shimmering

me:k'ingxut' it is covered up, it has a cover on it

me:k'inowhye I imitate someone

me:k'int'e it is the length of it, it is as long as it

me:k'iwhtiw I'm singing (for a dance), singing a dance-song

me:k'iwiloy'-ding the part of the shaft of an arrow where it is feathered

me:k'iwiltiw a measure of something

me:k'iwiltiw it has been measured

me:l'-ta:n live oak (Quercus chrysolepis)

me:lah some of it, some of them

me:lxe' it is finished, ready

me:me tall fern (Woodwardia)

me:na'ułtul they dance to there

me:na'winch'a:n he shouted

me:na:chwilił-te it (water) will settle

me:na:wh it arrives at it; (idiomatically) it's getting to be time for it

me:na:whdiming I have swum back to shore

me:nawhdile I'm imitating it

me:ne:q'-tł'ohte:l water snake; striped salamander (Eutoenia)

me:niliw (fish) swims into a net, gets caught in a net

me:ning'ay it extends along against it, leans against it

me:niwhgit I'm afraid of it, I fear it

me:niwho:n it is good for it, it is fitting, required

me:niwil'a' it is leaned against something

me:niwinch'e "Indian celery," a kind of grass

me:nundila:t it floated back

me:nundiqe:t it (a canoe) arrived back to shore

me:q'-xił-sile'n a part of an eel, eaten when half-dry

me:-si- climbing up along it

me:siwha:wh I'm going up, climbing (a hill)

me:siwidlay tattoo design element

me:so:yse'n I wanted to do it

me:sowhsin I want to do it, I'm really interested in doing it

me:tsah-xosin a lot, really, very

me:tsah-xowinsin'-te it will be difficult

me:wi-na:sita:n headband, "roll."

me:wina:whil the time comes

me:winła'n it has become enough

me:-xonist'e'-xwe:niwh he was happy about it

me:xwe:yłtsa:s I slung him against it

me:ya'de'ił'e:tł' they join them onto it

me:ya'k'isitiwiwh they pack things up hill in several loads

me:ya'k'iwiłte:l they sang

me:ya:de'e:tł' they are sitting on it (canoes on the shore)

me:yłt'un I stuck it on to it

me:yłto'n I caused it (spit) to jump at it

mehł seine, gill net

mehsch'il'e:n blue-flag grass, iris (Iris)

mehsla:-xosin it is mean

mehsla:-xowidse'n someone comes to be mean

mehst'a'n it is sticking to it

mehstł'o:n (someone) tied it on to it, it is tied on to it

mich'a'ah its (river's) mouth, outlet

mich'e:k'e'xw-na:nint'ik' the string which loops back and forth on a baby's belly in the baby-basket

mich'e:k'e'-xwo-silay cinch (on a horse)

mich'ile'-ne:s rhododendron (Rhododendron californicum)

mich'ilxune' its bitterness

mich'ing'-ding because of it, resulting from it

mich'ing'-na'yo:s violin

mich'ing'-na:sa'a:n along with something

mich'ing'-nayniłt'ik' trigger (on a gun)

mich'iwhe' soot

mich'iwhe'ta:wh bluish dust on acorns (due to mold)

michwa:n'-tułta:n grey fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus)

michwe:xin'-q'eh-yixolwhin meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta, Western Meadowlark)

michwoq'-xole:n bull

mida'ch small dentalia shells, unincised and too small for use as money; used for decorative necklaces

mida'mil arrow socket

mida'-mił-ne:lno' sash with redheaded woodpecker scalps and beaks sewn on, worn by men at the Kick Dance

mida'-mina:xo:lwhin snowbird, junco (Junco hyemalis, Dark-eyed Junco)

mida'ninyay he came to the door (but didn't go in)

mida'-nite:l duck (general term)

mida'-tehmil gopher (Thomomys, pocket gopher)

mida:n'-sa'a:n timber owl (Strix occidentalis, Spotted Owl)

mida:-q'it on the edge of (the river); riverbank

mide' its (animal's) horn, antlers

mide'ina:wh he goes close past it

mide'-xole:n cow, cattle; (archaic: buck deer or elk)

mide:dna'n it's been touched

mide:na'k'ilay he touched it

midiwhnaw I touch it

miduq its slope

mije'e:din baby, child

mije'e:din-xwa:-na:'uste' she had a baby for him

mije:'xo-tse:lnehwa:n red breasted salamander; red-bellied newt (Taricha totosa)

mije:q'e' (slug's, snail's) slime; slimy discharge

mije:q'e'-xole:n slug

mije:w'-xole:n sugar pine (Pinus lambertina)

mije:w'xole:n-k'idiłq'its' nuthatch, titmouse (Sitta carolinensis, White-breasted Nuthatch; S. canadensis, Red-breasted Nuthatch; Parus inornatus, Plain Titmouse)

mijiw'-ne:s mule, donkey

mijiwult'ung' its fins

mik'ilxije'-xole:n big white and black spotted salamander

mik'iqots'e' elk (Cervus canadensis, Roosevelt elk)

mik'iqots'e'-ma:'a' blackbird (Euphagus cyanocephalus, Brewer's Blackbird)

mik'its'o:' its (fish's) milt

mike' its (animal's) tail; mouth of a river (metaphorically)

mike'-łitsow blue-tailed lizard

mike:l' its (fish's, eel's ) tail

mike:l'-ch'ing' the tail-end of something, the smallest part of something

mikin' the base of something; a handle

miky'a:nt'ik' it is hanging

mikyo:n'-niłchwin onions

mikyow' grizzly bear (Ursus horribilis)

mikyow'-mik'ima:w' grizzly bear medicine

mikyowe'-mila' basket design equivalent to the Yurok and Karok "striped" design

-mil thin covering or shell

milay' point (of an arrow); tip (of a tree); summit, top, peak (of a mountain)

mile:je' its remains

milich it drips, leaks

milide'-niłchwin tobacco (rare)

milimil flute

miloy (berries) are unripe, green

-mił when..., after...

mił sleepiness, sleep, drowsiness, dream

mił (starting off) from

mił-'a'k'ił'e:n pencil, pen

mił-ch'a'a'dimil long-toothed Indian comb of elk-horn

mił-ch'idilye regalia and other ceremonial valuables used primarily in the White Deerskin Dance and Jump Dances

mił-ch'iwol scraper (for hide)

mił-ch'ixosow (traditional) implement for scratching, made of elkhorn, polished or with a rim of abalone shell

mił-ch'ixotiłchwo:k broom

mił-ch'ohłwul axe

miłchwit push it!

mił-dahch'iwiyo:sil trigger string attached to the A-frame net

mił-dahk'idiłdil small sifting basket

mił-dahsiday A-frame lifting net, equivalent to k'ixa:q'

miłiye' it is worth it

mił-k'idiłdin love medicine

mił-k'idiłwis (traditional) wooden drill-like implement used to create a spark, fire drill; (modern) matches

mił-k'iłdik' darkish rock, about 8 inches long, used to crack acorns

mił-k'iłt'iwh chisel

mił-k'iłtsil hammer, maul

mił-k'iłwul thresher, used to thresh out wild oats into basket

mił-k'it'us a saw

mił-k'itiłkis fishing spear, especially the point

mił-k'itiquch stick with hook on end used in stick game

mił-k'itiwa:t small sifting basket

mił-k'itsit rock used to crack acorns

mił-ky'a:n set of teeth

mił-ky'o'owha:l fishhook

mił-ky'o:xe:t (modern) money

mił-łe:na'ge:s a rake

mił-łe:na:dsow brush for sweeping up (acorn flour)

mił-łe:na:tsow brush for sweeping up (acorn) flour

mił-me'k'iłtiw measuring stick (for mesh of a net)

mił-miq'i(t)xwona:na'ay an iron

mił-mitahxw-ch'ixołchwe hoe

mił-na'k'iłwul baseball bat

mił-na'k'itł'oy shuttle for making nets

mił-na'ntsa:s a whip

mił-na'xode:s scissors

mił-na:'udiqot crutches

mił-na:na'k'iłwha:l wooden hook, used to break limbs off trees

mił-na:na'niłtul spurs

mił-na:sa'a:n there is a tradition

mił-na:tul (animal's) paw

mił-nikyahxwo-ky'a:n medicine to "stretch your stomach" so that you will be able to eat a lot at a feast

mił-no:'ołwul dip net, plunge net

mił-no:'ondil a "heavy" or slow song at the Kick dance

mił-sa'qot fork

miłsah-ch a little bit far

mił-tahch'ilo:s line to pull gill-net

mił-tahk'iłje:w large seine

mił-te:wina'k'iqot acorn paddle

mił-tehch'ijich modern spoon

mił-tehsch'e:-me' Upper Redwood Creek (Whilkut) village

miłto:y any basket large enough to cook in; (modern) pot, bucket

miłtsah-xosin rattlesnake

mił-wa'yo:s needle

mił-wun'dichwit towel

mił-xa'xa:wh garden spade; spades (suit in playing cards)

mił-xong'a'dił'e:n face or body paint made from soot mixed with marrow

mił-xong'a:na:diwilaw-k'ima:w' medicine to look nice, have nice things

mił-xontah-na:dya' medicine to make people be always glad to see you

mił-xosa'awh someone poisons him, poisoning happens

mił-xosa:d'a:n he had been poisoned

mił-xowiloy' belt

mił-yehch'ina:wh a "heavy" or slow song at the Brush Dance

mił-yehk'iłtul a "heavy" or slow song at the Brush Dance

mił-yik'iłt'ot nipple (on bottle)

mił-yiłkit (steel) trap

mima:ts'e' rim, edge of something (e.g. basket)

mimiłna:tul'-jiwol a second name for the bobcat

min'- house (archaic)

min'ch menstrual hut

min'-ch'e:ng'a:ding side pole running the length of a house, suppporting the roof

min'day' outside the house, outdoors

min'day'ch'ing'-xwa:'a:ne ta:n doctor

min'dayq' (on the) stone platform in front of a living house (xontah)

min'-sowoł the round exit door of a sweathouse

min'-t'ah the entrance passage into a living house

min'-tsida' smokehole in a living house

mina'k'idehłq'ay' he straddled it

mina'se'ina:wh she goes around it (the fire)

mina'wilda:l she ran around (the fire)

mina:' large seed, pit

mina:'-dahnehsnoy-ch big redwood salamander (Chondrotus)

mina:'e:din mole

mina:'-xwe raccoon (Procyon lotor)

mina:-k'isa'aw she sings (while) going around it

mina:k'isehłma:ts' I made a circle around it

mina:k'iwilt'ik' (string) is stretched around it, encircles it

mina:na:'isdiła:t she ran around it

mina:na:'isme:n he made it swim around (the world)

mina:na:k'ide:lq'ay' sitting with one leg on each side

mina:ng'ay sinkers on fish net

minah beforehand, ahead of time, in advance

minahsto (water) surrounds it, forms an island

minahsto:y island

minawhliwh I remember it, call it to mind, think of it

minawhniw I forget it

minchwiwh-mil yellowhammer, flicker (Colaptes auratus, Common Flicker)

minde'iłchwe (modern) tobacco, cigarette

mindich bobcat, lynx (Felis rufus)

mine:'e:din baby

mine:gits a little bit; (it is) cheap

mine:jit-dahna:k'e:t'a:ts' I cut it in half

mine:jit-ts'isye:n non-technical term for the center man in the Jump Dance

mine:jixomił afterwards, then (after a while)

mine:jixo-na'ne'iłtuł-ding place along the Boat Dance route, near the village of Miskut

mine:qits a little, slightly, easily

ming it (animal)

-ming in order to, so that

ming'-kine'ding at the back of a house

mingk'il'e:n menstruating woman, menstruation (direct term, used among women)

mingk'iwh'e:n I am menstruating, having my period

mingwah at the edge of it, bordering it, beside it, (lying) next to it

ming-wha:ne empty

mingwiwhyo:l I'm chasing along, driving (animals, e.g. horses, cattle, pigs)

minilohts hoot owl, smallest owl

minim'-mił-łe:diliw mountain lion, "panther" (Felis concolor)

minin flank (of mountain), hillside

minin'ding-ch'e:ng'ay (modern) cap, with bill, baseball cap

minin'ding-dahdiwing'ay (modern) cap, with bill, baseball cap

mining month (in names of months)

mining'-łiwhin Black person, Negro

mining'-me:q'e' screech owl (Otus asio)

mining'-q'it-nuk'iłut' turkey; turkey's wattles

mining'-tehs'ay pest, pesky person

mining-gije' (a fish's) head-gristle

miniwhloy' I'm tying you to it

minłun-dikin ten hundred, one thousand

minłundikin-miwah-na:ła'dikin one thousand one hundred

minłung it is sufficient, enough for it

minłung ten

minłung-miwah-na:ła' eleven

minłung-miwah-na:nahx twelve

minłung-miwah-na:ta:q' thirteen

mino:'awhding practice religious dance performed to the side of dance area

mino:k'e:łdik' I put a hole in it

mino:k'ischwa'n it (plant) is growing in a clump or bunch

mino:lwe:tł' it was midnight

mino:ya'k'ingt'a'ts'-te they are going to cut them open

minq' lake

minq'i-kyoh-ding Espar

minq'i-nikya:w-q'it Trinity Summit

mintiwh'its I'm pulling at it (with all my strength)

mintł'ohwh fasten your net!

miq'a'a'diłchwe a circle of rocks on top of a mountain, where Indian doctors train

miq'eh-me:na:k'iwiltiw a "light" or fast song at the Brush Dance

miq'eh-na:diwul-ding Requa

miq'i'esday (traditional) stump-like stool for men; (modern) chair

miq'i-ch'ing' flat with oaks

miq'ik'itł'oy' hazel sticks

miq'is half of it, one of a pair

miq'i-sile'n it has gotten late

miq'is-nint'ik' false Solomon's Seal (Smilacina sessilifolia)

miq'it dahch'iwinge:n she smoked (tobacco)

miq'it-ch'ich'iwh coat, jacket

miq'it-dahch'idiłtse horse

miq'it-dahky'a:n table (modern)

miq'it-dahna'de'ił'a'-ding Buck Buttes

miq'it-dahna:dił'a shoot it, hit it (with an arrow)!

miq'it-dahsa'a:n saddle

miq'it-dahwing'a' the sun has set behind the western hills, it is sunset

miq'it-k'e'sindil ladder

miq'it-k'ildil Serviceberry (Amelanchier), juneberry

miq'it-k'iłxa:l frame on which deerhides are stretched to dry before tanning

miq'it-k'iwiłiw butter

miq'it-k'ixut deadfall trap (for fisher)

miq'it-king-k'e:'iłwul drum used in stick game

miq'it-me:'iłwul drum

miq'it-na'k'ilmowh swing

miq'it-na:k'iłtsay' drying frame for gill net

miq'it-na:na:ndil ladder

miq'it-no:'ołwul platform on fish dam for dip-netting

miq'it-xokyun-xole:n he remembers it

miq'itxwo-na:nawh'ay I'm ironing (clothes)

miq'os-łitsow mallard (Anas platyrhynchos)

miq'ost'ahdiminłung ninety

miq'os-t'aw nine

miqe:king'-xiłnehwa:n maidenhair fern (Adiantum)

mis cliff, bluff, riverbank

mis'a:n' remembering it, talk about it

misGe'gits they (things, children) are little

misa'wiłt'iky'-te he'll run it in its mouth

misa'wingxa:n he fed it

misa:k'iwil'e:tł' they were stuck in its mouth

misa:y small seeds

misah-k'itidlut' foreigner, someone who can't speak Hupa well

misah-me:q'-silay bridle

misah-niłchwin turkey vulture, buzzard (Cathartes aura)

misah-sa'a:n its gills

mis-dima'-me' Table Bluff

mise:na:ych'e' Lily Hostler's other name

misgilo medium-sized owl (Bubo virginianus, Great Horned Owl)

misinto' its sap, grease, juice

misinto'-xole:n summer run of steelhead

misjeh fog, mist, light haze

mis-me' name of a Chilula village

miso:se' its (plant's) shoots; its (bee's) stinger

misq'i-mima:nch'ing' Shenon Farm bar

misq'i-nilin Mill Creek

mis-q'it Village of Miskut

misq'it-ch'idilye a Jump Dance formerly held during the spring at Miskut (misq'it)

mis-xehsta:ng-q'it place upstream from the highway bridge

misxustun-ding a mountain north of the Klamath, mentioned in Emma Lewis' medicine formula to protect children (location unknown)

mit'ung'-łiqiwhich type of medicinal herb

mitah-'a:'ił'e:n baking powder

mitahxw-ch'iłchwe he hoes the garden, clears the garden of weeds

mitis-nuno:je:ye' forget it!

mitł'e:de' its (fish's) scales

mitł'ow' (a plant's) leaves, foliage

mits'in'-na:ng'e:tł' wasp

mits'isge:' its (e.g. duck's) fine feathers, down

mits'o:'-ch'iłtik milk cow

mitse:tł'owa'-xole:n horse (less common term)

miwa' its (animal's) fur, (bird's) down

miwe:whe' its (bird's, chicken's) egg

miwhkya' I'm wearing a dress

miwhliwh I'm looking after (something), watching it

miwhwul I'm drumming

miwhxe'x-xole:n doe

miwhxiw I'm finishing it

miwidwa:de' powder; the dust of something

miwowh its (e.g.. beer's) foam

miwowh-tina:wh beer

miwung ocean (archaic, used only in placenames and phrases)

miwung' half, part of something

mixa:ch'e' its (tree's) stump, clumped roots

mixa:ch'e'-xole:n angelica, sweet anise, incense root (Angelica sylvestris)

mixa:ch'e'-xole:n-q'it Captain John Mountain

mixa:-xa:k'iwidwhe gold

mixontaw'-xole:n woodrat (Neotoma)

mixulo' (deer's, pig's) cloven hoof

miy rain rock; powerful (tabooed) place or object (usually a rock) which must not be touched unless you want it to rain

miya:wh its (animal's) young

miyehch'o' eel's "backstrap" or "string"

miyeh-ts'isq'a'n he roasted it

miyeh-wilq'a'n roasting rack

miyeh-wilq'a'n-kin' roasting rack (for drying pitchwood)

miyeh-wunna'dil backup singers, singers who sing in the background for someone singing a melody

miyi-me' name of a village located at Campbell's Ranch

miyi-me' Rain Rock

miyi-mida:-q'it place along the river bank at miyi-me'

mowun-niwhon-ding Yurok village of Tsurai at Trinidad

mun'-kyoh-łtsow blowfly

mun'-ts'isge mosquito

mung' fly

n- towards

-na wait for

na' look!

-na' particle sometimes found with interrogative pronouns; meaning unclear

na'de'ilchwun'-ding Tule Ranch

na'de'ił'e:tł' he stands them up

na'dehsdiqot' he rolled around on the floor

na'dil they go around

na'dilchwa'n they are eating together, having a feast

na'ditł'e:t' he walks along with his body flopping

na'diwidyay he got back off (horse), dismounted

na'diwildito'n he jumped off

na'diwinchwit he let go of it

na'k'ide:s someone who cuts hair, barber

na'k'idilyay necklace of shells or beads

na'k'idiwilya' she put on a necklace

na'k'ilqich old term for coffee (refers to roasting of beans)

na'k'iłquch he is parching, roasting (seeds, corn, coffee, etc.)

na'k'iłtso'n he flips (stones, marbles)

na'k'itiwa'a:l she sings along

na'k'itł'oy gill net, seine

na'k'itł'oy he sets a gill net

na'k'iwiłdiw he washed something

na'ky'a'aw the "center man" in the line of Jump Dancers

na'ne'iliwh he brings them over (across the river)

na'ne'iłxiwh he moves them across (in canoe)

na'ne'ite'ch'-ding Hostler Point

na'ne:chway he threw dirt at it

na'ne:wehsdilay he won

na'niłkis he strikes at it

na'niłt'ik' he strung it across

na'ningyay he went (across)

na'ninyo:t he chased, hunted (quarry)

na'qot he pokes around, goes around with a pointed stick, pole

na'siłwe he butchers (one animal)

na'te'indil they go off back

na'te:ng'e'n he looked back

na'tehłde'idz-te they will run along (with a girl in the Flower Dance)

na'tindil they are going home

na'tiw he wins, he runs fastest

na'ułtul stamp-dancing

na'ułtul they are stamp-dancing (the basic dance step)

na'wa:n he breaks it up; he butchers (several animals)

na'we he packs it around, carries it around as a pack

na'wehch ceremonial basket-quiver, used only at the Jump Dance

na'whiwiłme' he bathed me

na'wida:l he is going back, returning home

na'widchwe:l he was crying along (on his way back)

na'widqot' he tumbled down from above

na'wiłxe:l he is on the track, tracks it along

na'wime:l she always bathes along

na'wing'il they (people) swam around, bathed

na'winłit he burned it

na'wint'aw he sinned, broke the rules

na'xohsme:tł' somebody threw them (people) around

na'xoniłiw he throws mud at someone

na:- circular motion

na:- linear motion down from above

na:- here and there, about (non-directional motion)

na:'[w]iłdime:n he made it swim back

na:'awhchwo:k I brush them off again

na:'e'iya' it always rains

na:'ul'a' it (regalia) customarily lies there

na:'uldito'n she danced back

na:'ulit-ding Karuk village at Camp Creek

na:'ułmohwhich small burden basket, like a purse or "suitcase"

na:'ułto'n a Jump Dance step

na:'ułto'n he dances jumping up and down (a general term for frenzied dancing in place, as in doctor-training dances)

na:'ułwis he is dodging around

na:'ułwuł he's shaking it side to side

na:'undiłah he runs back

na:'usła:t he ran around

na:'usma:s he rolled it around

na:'usna:t he tasted it

na:'usqe:t he paddled it around

na:'usxe' he tracked it around

na:'usxe' he hauled it around

na:'usxit' he touched it, felt it

na:ch'iłtsił (he was) moving as he sat

na:da'ay it (tree, pole, etc.) stands there, sticks out (of the ground)

na:dawhsa'n I'm getting weak

na:de'e'tł' they stand up

na:de'ił we're swimming around

na:de'tł' digger pine, bull pine (Pinus sabiniana); pine nuts

na:de'tł'-nehwa:n beans (modern)

na:de'tł'-tse'ch jack pine, small sugar pine

na:dehsdilyay we are standing

na:dije:w they (birds) flew together

na:diłwuł pour (the water)! spill (the things)!

na:dimil it's spilling out, dropping out (of basket)

na:dite:k'ił it breaks off

na:dite:yay it (ground) opened up

na:diwh'ay I'm standing it up (pole, post, etc.), planting a tree

na:diwilwa'tł' they were lying there scattered

na:diwilwa:tł' what has been poured, dumped

na:diwing'a' it stuck up

na:diwuł it swings around

na:dne:l children's play, playing

na:dohłya' stand up (you all)!

na:k'e'its to shoot at a mark

na:k'e:yun'-te they will grow

na:k'ida'ay a rainbow

na:k'ida'ay there is a rainbow

na:k'idilya put on a necklace!

na:k'ila:t a limb falls from a tree

na:k'iłqot' set a snare!

na:k'iłwehł store it away, pack it away!

na:k'indeh acorns drop to the ground

na:k'ine mountain quail (Oreortyx pictus)

na:k'inehłtse:tł' I threw (a rock) across

na:k'ining'ay something extends across, lies crosswise

na:k'iniwh'ay I lay it across (arm, leg, stick, board)

na:k'iniwilte:l bridge

na:k'iqot pain is felt, there is a stab of pain

na:k'iqot hog, pig

na:k'is'its they shot at a mark

na:k'ite'ida:ye' it starts blooming again

na:k'ite:se:we:n I packed my load back again

na:k'iwh'aw I'm singing (in general), I'm a singer

na:k'iwhla:wh I clean (dirt, sand) off of it

na:k'iwhle I feel around with my hand, move my hand around

na:k'iwhxut' I'm sewing it

na:k'iwidla:wh it has been cleaned off

na:k'iwilda:wh a top

na:k'iwilqot' snare, a slim stick stuck in the ground and bent over

na:k'iwilwe:l they are kept, stored away

na:k'iwilxut' it's been sewn

na:k'iwinch'e it is windy

na:k'ixa:ch it (e.g. hair) hangs loose, something is broken apart, disarticulated (e.g. a broken fish)

na:k'ixolq'its' basket design equivalent to the Yurok crooked or zigzag design

na:k'iyo:wh (water) washes back and forth, surges about

na:la:t it's floating around

na:leh (they are) diving around

na:lgya:s (it is) broken

na:lła:t it ran down (in the ground)

na:lma:ts' something coiled up, a hoop

na:lte' work, a job

na:lto'n jumping up and down style of dancing

-na:ł in the presence of, before one's eyes

na:ła' another, repeated, again

na:łtsa:y they are dried (e.g. clothes hung on line)

na:łtsił hit it (with a rock)!

na:ma:s it's rolling, turning (on an axis)

na:miq'eh following along behind, last

na:mis-dima:s a (toy) top

na:mus-xw in a circle, around

na:mut' it (bird, bat) flaps its wings, flies around

na:na'awhliwh I take them down again

na:na'chwit someone slides his hand down

na:na'de:łiw he drew a line across it

na:na'k'ide:lo:s he made it ready (a pack, load)

na:na'loy' she ties up her hair by winding a fur hair-tie (tsiq') around it

na:na'ninde:tł' they crossed over there

na:na'ning'a:n he won it back

na:na'udahwh it has come down

na:na'widił-te they will live again

na:na'widxits he flew back down

na:na'wiłkyo:s he took it (blanket) down

na:na'wiłtin he has taken it down again

na:na'wing'a:n he had taken it down

na:na'wintun-te someone will bring it down

na:na:'awhxa:wh I take it (a filled container) down

na:na:'isdits-e: he turned around

na:na:'isdiwich he leaned down

na:na:'udqot' it (weaving) turns, bends up

na:na:'ułdinaw he turns it around

na:na:'usxoy' he vomited

na:na:da'ay small point, peak

na:na:dit'ah it (feather, leaf) falls, drops, wafts downward

na:na:diwul it was wiggling

na:na:dme'tł' they have been thrown down, lie scattered

na:na:dyay it (sun) had gone down

na:na:k'iwhjeh I'm going to pitch, tar something

na:na:ne'iwhtiwh I always pass it over

na:na:nya'-te you will live

na:na:sinyahwh turn around and go back!

na:na:tuł (somone) steps down

na:na:wiloy' (woman's) tied-up hair

na:na:wiloy' he had his hair tied

na:na:ya'xoniłxa' they found his tracks (across the river)

na:na:ya:yde'tł'-te we shall live forever

na:nawhdinaw I turn around (and go back)

na:ndiqot' you wriggle, scramble back

na:ne:lay I won (in gambling)

na:ne:l-ch doll

na:ne:łde:tł' I slung (rope) across

na:ne:widil'inił-te we will look at it

na:ng'a' a (traditional) lunar month, a (modern) calendar month

na:ng'a' a round object has come to lie there again, has come back to rest; idiomatically: the moon has gone through a complete cycle

na:ng'ay it extends downward, is hanging down

na:ng'e:tł' they extend down, hang downward (e.g., fruit on a tree, curtains)

na:-ni- linear motion across (a river, a road)

na:niłtsong' hit, bang against it!

na:niłtuł stamp down!

na:ningxut' curtain

na:nint'ik' it stretches across

na:ninyiwh move across (the river)!

na:niwhwul I'll hit it, drum on it (with a stick)

na:niwilxut' it (e.g. curtain) has been hung

na:niwiłiq' Mongolian spots

na:nohdigit (you all) come running back!

na:ntiwh lie down again! go (back) to bed!

na:ntun'-te it will come to lie again at that place; idomatically: a feast will happen

na:nyay rain

na:nyay it's raining; it's starting to rain

na:q' gravel

na:q'i(t)-ta:ng'a:ding gravel bar in river

na:q'it gravel bar, river bar

na:q'itah-k'iłixun jackrabbit

na:qiwh it (arm, face, etc.) twitches, it has a tic; it is twitching (e.g. tic on arm, face)

na:qowh (horse) runs around, gallops

na:sa'a:n-tuq resting place on the trail between Hostler Ranch village and Matilton village

na:sda'undeh a few days ago

na:sdo:ngxw-ky'a:n menstruating woman (polite term, used by women in front of men)

na:sdongxw alone, by oneself

na:sdongxwe menstruating woman (polite term, used by women in front of men)

na:sma:ts' round, circular, in a loop, hoop-shaped

-na:t around, all around (in a circle)

na:t'ah it floats about in the air, waves (like a flag), wafts about

na:t'aw flag

na:t'awe duck (older term, now archaic)

na:t'awe:-łiqay diving duck (Mergus (sp.), Merganser)

na:t'awe:-sowolts ruddy duck (Oxyura jamaicensis, North American Ruddy Duck)

na:te'ildixit they start off back

na:te:ch'it the waning moon (when its going from full to new)

na:te:ditse it opened

na:te:sdiyay I went home

na:te:siwh'e'n I'm looking back

na:te:wh'ing'ił-te I shall always be looking back

na:te:witse it (door) is open

na:tiłtah unfold it (e.g., paper, canvas)! uncoil (a rope)!

na:tini-xw Hoopa Valley (i.e., where the trails lead back)

na:tinixwe Hoopa Valley Indians

na:tintse open it (door, window)!

na:tiwhdiye:wh I'm breathing

na:tiwidqe:l they were coming along on canoes

na:tł'a' backwards

na:ts'eh it (baby, snake, eel) wiggles around, squirms

-na:tse ahead, first, preceding

na:tse:s arrow

na:wehsle'n it (water) fell

na:wehsma:ts' it was coiled

na:whay I'm going around, moving in no particular direction

na:whdita:n I brought it (a long object) back

na:whdiyay I went back

na:whiniłyiw it becomes me, suits me (e.g., dress, ornament)

na:whixinay' I got well again, recovered from an illness

na:whtong'ił-te I'm going to dance (jumping up and down)

na:widilił-te it shall be snow always

na:widits whirlwind

na:wilit it burned up, got burned

na:wiłkya' she put a dress on

na:wma:ts' it has become round

na:xay it (animal) is wounded

na:xe they are floating around (e.g. logs in pond)

na:xis it flies [around]

na:xiwhdinaw I'm moving about

na:xodiwh'e'n I watch him, take notice of him, keep my eyes on him

na:xodiwht'us I'm cutting him with a knife, slashing him

na:xoh'ung run around (you all)!

na:xolts'a' a variety of small bird

na:xolts'a' (water) soaks down into the ground

na:xoniłyohł I'm blowing at him

na:xoniwhdixe'-te I will track him down

na:xoniwhyo:t I'm chasing him around

na:xosch'e' type of clover

na:xote:se:sow I'm sweeping (with modern broom)

na:xowh'ay I invite him around (to different places, here and there)

na:xowhde:s I'm cutting off his hair

na:xowhtsa:n I found him

na:xowiloy' belt

na:y'a' I came to have it (round object), acquired it, got it, bought it, came to be carrying it around

na:ya'k'ine'a'aw they sing again

na:ya'tiwiyo:sil they were each drawing them through (knives through their mouths)

na:ya'wildiła:t she ran back up

na:ya'xone'iłiw they hit them with mud

na:ya'xotehłxa' they tracked him

na:ya:ne:de:tł' we had gone across

na:ywiłxahł-te night will pass

nahdiminłung twenty

nahdiminłung-miwah-na:ła' twenty-one

nahdiminłung-miwah-na:nahx twenty-two

nahdiminłung-miwah-na:ta:q' twenty-three

nahdiyaw money (general term)

nahdiyaw-mił-ch'iloy' small, harmless snake; "money snake"

nahł'awh they move around, browse, roam

nahłmil eddy in a stream

nahłmowh it is hanging, swinging from something

nahłtsis it is hanging (attached to a string or rope)

nahsdixich it is spotted

nahslin-ding Ishi Pishi

nahsma:ts' it is round, circular, looped around

-nahsni (passing) in front of

nahsqot' it (stick, etc.) is bent, crooked

nahst'ik' wild tea (vine)

nahx two

nahxa-le:n large (and valuable) blanket made from two (deer)hides sewn together; a 'double' blanket

nahx-dikin two hundred

nahxi-k'iq'os-na:diwul a mythical giant with two heads, on necks that swing around

nahxi-tehs'a two-pronged fish spear

nawh'ay I'm carrying (a round object) around; I have it (e.g. stone), own it

nawh'its I'm running around, I'm in motion

nawh'ut I'm waving, flopping (a cloth, blanket) around; I'm going to throw it (cloth-like object) down

nawhdiqe:ch' I am lame, limping

nawhdiqot' I wriggle, flop around

nawhdixe I'm loosely built

nawhdow I dodge something, jump out of sight sneakily, dart along the road

nawhjich I'm carrying (little pieces, like sand, sugar, berries) around

nawhkyo:s I'm carrying (a blanket) around

nawhle I'm carrying (rope, several objects) around

nawhlo:s I'm dragging it around

nawhłeh I'm making marks (all over), drawing lines in all directions

nawhme I'm swimming, bathing

nawhne:l I'm playing (a game, with toys, etc.)

nawhqits'

nawhquch I'm tossing it around with a stick, pushing it here and there with a stick (usually with reference to the stick game, shinny)

nawht'ow I'm stirring something (with a paddle)

nawhte I keep, own (an animal)

nawhte' I'm working

nawhtin I'm carrying it (an empty basket, a long, stick-like object) around

nawhts'it I'm falling (from a height), dropping

nawhtse:l I'm warming it up, heating it

nawhxay I'm carrying (a filled container) around

nawhye:wh I'm resting

nawhying I'm moving (camp, residence) around

nay'wid'ing'il she looked

nayde'iłxit' someone feels along on it; (idiomatically) someone is affected by a hereditary ailment

nayk'isdił clock

nayłkit (cloud, fog, smoke) drifts around

naynehłdik' (woodpecker) pecked

naynehłtse:tł' the clock struck the hour

nayntehłdik' he (woodpecker) pecked

nayts'a'n there is a sound, something is audible (in the distance)

naywe:se:'e'n I'm looking all round

-ne' (you) must...

-ne'in used to (do, be), was ...-ing, former, deceased

ne:de:tł' we (2) came, arrived

-ne:jit while..., in the midst of ...ing

-ne:jit in the middle, center of

ne:lya:n it's been eaten up

ne:łxut' I have hung (the curtain)

ne:se:day I sat down

ne:we:no' they came to stand up there

ne:yay I came, arrived

nehe we, us

-nehs alongside of

nehsdite:ch' we lay down

nehsnoy they (mountains, a line of things) stand up there, project upward, stick up in peaks

nehwa:n it resembles, looks like (something)

-ng-xits' beside, close to

nich'ing'-yehna:ldiqoł it's your turn!

nich'owhte I feel stronger than you, I overpower you

nichwe'n it is bad, bad-looking, ugly, dirty

nichwin'-ch'ing' left (side), on the left

nichwing'-xw badly, in a bad way

nida:s it is heavy

nikilxay your brothers

nikyah-nich'o:ne he has respect for you

nikyah-xw in a big way, greatly, much; soundly (in sleeping)

nikyung-xoling watch out! take care!

nileh it had arrived there swimming

nilin creek, stream

nilin (water) flows

nilin-kin'-ding former village in Sugar Bowl

nilts'it it comes to someone as a gift or blessing, it befalls someone

nił'a:ch' they (animals) came

niłch'ing'-who:wh kingsnake (Lampropeltis sp.)

niłch'ing'-ya:'ulto'n to dance towards and past another dancer

niłchwin it stinks, smells bad, has a strong odor

niłchwin-dilma:y wormwood

niłchwing-k'iwilchwe:n sourdough

niłchwiniq'a'-ding Panamnik

niłchwit he pushed it

niłde'se'indil they meet each other

niłde:ya'se'ilto'n they meet each other dancing (from opposite directions)

niłdiłwa:-sile'n they traded, exchanged

niłdits a wrinkle

niłdits it is wrinkled

niłgit it's rotten, crumbly from rot (thing, not flesh)

niłje:n it is bright, shining

niłke:kyo:ts' purse for keeping dentalia

niłky'a:k'ildiwi-me' panther; also the name of the place where panther lives in a medicine formula for the birth of a first child (Goddard, Hupa Texts #33)

niłma:nch'ing'-me:da'ay a type of snake

niłq'it-dahsa'a:n basket design equivalent to the Yurok "flint" design

niłta:n it is soft, damp

niłtsa:y it is dry, dried up

niłtuq black oak (Quercus kelloggii, or Quercus californica)

niłtuq-lay' a place half-way up Bald Hill, where the concluding dances of the White Deerskin Dance are held

niłtuqu-tah-ding Chimariko village located at Don Juan

niłwa:yay'ilto'n they jump dance passing each other

niłwe' it is greasy, oily, shining

niłxit it (some object) is slippery, slick, smooth

niłxut' it (e.g. curtain) is hanging

nił-xwe:lik I told you

nime:tł' you bring them

nin' dirt, earth, ground

nin'-dahsa'a:n hill

nin'i-dahsa'un-ding Wahtek

nin'i-me' place identified in Emma Lewis' story of Yima:ntiw'winyay as the location of a final dance

nin'i-me:l-ding Meta

nin'i-wa:ky'a'un-ding Turip

nin'i-wiltso:l-miyeh Chilula camp belonging to noleh-ding

nin'-me'-xa'sindił-ding place along the Boat Dance route, on the bank between mis-q'it (Meskut) and ta'k'imił-ding

nin'-miwhtsił I'm squatting down

nin'-miwina:-ch'iste:n mythical being

nin'se'indil they dance bobbing up and down

nin'sindil a dance step featuring dancing up and down in place

nina'xoste:n he raised her up

nina:- rising up from lying down

nina:taw being unaware of what you are doing

ninch'ing' down to the ground

ninde:n it is rich, greasy, oily, shiny with grease

nindong' it is straight, stretched out in a line (string, trail, etc.)

ning you (singular)

ning'ay it extends along

ning'e:tł' they lie horizontal, crosswise

ningk'iwh'ul I am dressing meat, butchering (animal), cutting up (fish)

ningxa' good-looking, handsome, beautiful

ningxa't'e:n leader, boss, rich, important person; rich and important person

ningxits' it flew here

ningxonding in plain sight

ningxosge cherry, chokecherry (Prunus sp.)

ningxosting it (water, ground) is frozen, there is ice

ningxosting frost, ice on the ground

ningxosting-me'iłchwe refrigerator

ningxowinte:n it froze

ninis'a:n the world, surface of the earth, country, mountain, land

ninis'a:n-chwin'da:'ułtiwh he spoils the world, breaks the rules, does something sacrilegious

ninis'a:n-me'a:diniłchwit earthquake

ninis'a:n-me'-yitiliwh "pains" which are only shown in the Kick-Dance, not sucked out of people

ninis'a:n-me:na'iłtiw surveyor

ninis'a:n-mich'ing'-dinun-ts'isye:n name for a sucking doctor

ninis'a:n-nikya:w Big Hill (at the head of Hostler Creek)

nint'a:na'widyay he turned back, started back home

nint'ik' it stretches in a line, it (string, rope, etc.) extends out straight

nintiwh lie down!

ninyiwh move here!

niq'eh-wiwhdinung' I agree with you

nisah a long way, far

nisawh'awh I'm putting it (e.g., stone) into your mouth

nise:qot I poked you

nisking tall, straight conifer (esp. one without low branches, such as Douglas fir, yellow pine)

nisking-mina:k'iwiltsil nuthatch, titmouse (Sitta carolinensis, White-breasted Nuthatch; S. canadensis, Red-breasted Nuthatch; Parus inornatus, Plain Titmouse)

nisking-mina:t-ch'iwiltong'il sapsucker (Redwood dialect)

niskin-ji-ding name of a village located upstream from Willow Creek

nista:n log, fallen tree

nite:l it (thing) is wide, broad, spread flat

nite:sila:l-e: you go to sleep

nitł'its' it is hard, solid (like stone)

nitsa:s it is big around, large in diameter, thick (like a stick)

niwehs'e:tł' things have extended, run along somewhere

niwehsle'n it started to flow

niwh'awh I'm bringing it (e.g., stone)

niwh'e:n I'm looking at something

niwh'e:tł' I extend them along, lay them horizontally, crosswise (e.g. sticks, poles)

niwhchwił I am wet

niwhdin I'm in love with you

niwhgit I'm afraid, I fear, I'm a coward

niwhkya:w I'm big

niwhne:s I am tall, long

niwhnoy I stand (things) up in a line, make them stick up

niwho:n (it is) good, nice, pretty

niwhon-ch'ing' right (side), on the right

niwhong-xw well, healthy, in a good way

niwhqits' I am crooked, twisted

niwhtsa:t I'm (in the process of) sitting down

niwhwha:l I'm going

niwhwil I'm dozing off

niwhyiw I'm crippled, bent over

niwidlay they are brought

niwil dizziness, drunkenness

niwilgit it is dangerous

niwin'a'-te it (road) will be there

niwinchwe'n it got bad, spoiled

niwindin'-te it will get oily

niwindo'n it has gotten straight

niwingwhon'-te it will be good

nixo:se:le' I got lost

-no' (hidden) behind, out of sight

no'de'ilchwa'n they quit eating in company

no'diwilye'ił they have stopped dancing successive times

no'iłxuts' scrapings

no'iłxuts' he chewed it (sinew) up

no'k'e'iłqowh he used to throw it

no'k'e'iqot he stands it up

no'k'ingxa:n feast, picnic; specifically the Acorn Feast

no'k'ingxun-ding the Acorn Feast ground (at Ta'kimiłding)

no'k'iningya'n he finished eating

no'k'itiwh a small net

no'k'itiwh wedge

no'k'iwilta:tł'-ding any danceground at which the White Deerskin Dance is performed

no'k'ixa:wh a small net

no'ky'a'awh they (two players) are coming out to start the stick game

no'niłchwe:n someone made it (be a certain way) to that point

no'niłde'tł'-te she will drop it

no'niłqe:t he shoved it down there

no'niłtsow he stuffed it in

no'ninga:s he whittled it down

no'ninge:n he put it down (fire)

no'nłq'a:s he threw it there

no'tehłchwa'n he squeezed it to that point

no'wa'awhil they quit singing (repeatedly)

no'wilwa'tł' he was lying there dead

no'xo:'awhil they run back again

no'xoschwe'n they buried the corpse

no:- penetrating into something

no:- down to a position of rest, to a limit

no:'olit it quits burning

no:'ondil they sit down

no:'ondiqe:t he was shoved down there; (idiomatically) he starved to death

no:'ondiya'n he was left over

no:'oxiwh they (canoes) float to that place

no:de'ich'a:t it does not pain anymore

no:dintuł step there!

no:diwh'iwh I notice it

no:dmich (it is) broken off

no:dwa:s (it is) whittled

no:k'iliwh put your hand down!

no:k'indił-ding acorn picking lot

no:k'ine:yo:t dog

no:k'iningyo:wh they (dentalia) are scattered about

no:k'iniwhyoh I'm telling someone to stop (doing something), I'm warning them to cease

no:k'injich plant (seeds, potatoes, etc.)!

no:k'inyawh finish eating!

no:k'iwijich garden

no:l'qe:t fishtrap

no:lah the new moon comes, a month begins

no:ltsit' bow knot

no:lye:ts' common knot

no:na'indiqot' he reached it by jumping

no:na'k'iniłkis he put his hand down

no:na'ky'a'awh he leaves some behind (e.g., food)

no:na'unime:tł' he threw them back down

no:na'wiłditse (he) had a door shut

no:na'xoł'ay sucking doctoring

no:na'xoniłte:n he divorced her, she divorced him

no:na:'awhmut' I always pat it down

no:na:'awhsow I scratch it (sand) back down again (into a hole)

no:na:'idgit they came again

no:na:diyahts the snowfall is reaching down the mountain to that point (light snow, frost that is visible on the terrs)

no:na:dxisił-te it will always fall back down

no:na:k'inohłta'tł'-te: you (pl.) shall kick it back to there

no:na:ndije:w they got back

no:na:wh-tehsyay bride

no:na:wit'a:ts' it is cut down

no:na:wita:n door

no:na:witse door (modern door, or sliding door of traditional living house), gate

no:na:witse it (door) was shut

no:na:xoltsa:y it got dried up to that place (i.e., floodwaters receded)

no:na:xołtiwh overtake him!

no:na:ya'uldito'n they always jump back (to the same position)

no:na:ya'xo'awh they lay out a corpse

no:nayk'iwiłt'o:l it (fog) is always slipping back down to that point

no:ndik'il he split it that far

no:ne:yay I quit going

no:ng'a:-ding the farthest extent of something, as far as it reaches, the edge (of a river, the ocean)

no:nila:t it floated to there

no:nilyo:tł' it stopped swelling up

no:ningxits' he had fallen to the ground

no:nt'ik' it stretches to that point

no:nto' (water) reached its farthest extent, (flood water) crested

no:nults'it (wind) stops blowing

no:nundimil it fell back

no:nuntse close the door!; shut the door (after it has been opened)!

no:ta:ng'a:-ding place mentioned in Mary Marshall's description of the Gooseberry-place Brush Dance (location unknown)

no:wehsle'n it (money) was scattered to that point

no:whchwe:n I grew to a certain point, stopped growing

no:whidiłta'n I am used to it, I'm familiar with it

no:whła:t I ran to there

no:wilin-ding headwaters of Redwood Creek

no:wiling head of a creek, stream, river

no:wina:whił-te someone will go (this far)

no:witiwhił-te it (a long object) will always be left (standing there)

no:xo:ta'awh they all rush there

no:xonyawh stop the eclipse!

no:y' covered up, buried

no:ya'de'ilye' they quit dancing

no:ya'ultsil to dance about crouched down; to lean

no:ya'windil they sat down

no:ya'xwe'iłda' they cause her to sit down

no:ya:'ulxit' they moved their dance camp

no:ya:wilin they (acorns) were piled that far

no:yawh leaving things over

nohn you (plural), you all

noleh waterfall, dam, obstruction in a stream

noleh-ch'e:l-ding former village in the Trinity canyon

noleh-ding name of a Chilula village

nołye'ts' tie a knot!

nondiya'n what has been left over, leftovers (food, supplies, etc.)

nong'awh stop singing (a dance-song)!

nongxodine a roaring sound

nongyawh leave some over!

nosht'ah I don't believe it! It's a lie!

nowh'awh I put it down (round object)

nowh'ut I'm throwing (a cloth, blanket) down (spread out)

nowhjich I put them down (little pieces)

nowhkyo:s I put it down (blanket, cloth, etc.)

nowhliwh I put them down (several objects, rope)

nowhłiw I put it down (a dough-like or floppy object)

nowhtiwh I put it down (an empty basket, a long, stick-like object)

nowhtiwh I put him/her down (living being)

nowhwul I'm throwing it down; I'm throwing a dip-net

nowhxa:wh I put it down (a bucket, dipper, or other filled container)

noynił'e:tł' they stuck them down

noyniłkit (cloud, fog, smoke) settled, came down

noywiłkil (cloud, fog, smoke) is settling

nul'iwh it's dripping down, water comes down drop by drop

nuliwh put it on (clothing)

nulwing it is melting away

nulxich speckled, spotted

nulxich a spot

nuł'e'tł' hang them up!

nułchwe it increases, grows in size

nułma'ts' coil it! put it in a circle!

nułmowh monkey

nułqoł crawl around!

nułqot' bend it (e.g. stick, rod)!

nułtsis hang it up (on string, rope)!

nułtuł kick it around!

nułxut I'm knocking it down (something previously built, like a trap)

nunch'iwh wear it (coat, dress)!

nundil several things, particles fall to the ground; (idiomatically) it snows

nundil snow

nundila:t it floated back

nundiliw-e he returned swimming back there

nundil-wint'e:-q'it Mary Blaine Mountain

nundiqoch' he loped back

nungah shake it (thoroughly), shake it out!

nuniwhtsis-te goodbye, see you!

nunts'ing crag, mountain peak

nuntuł step around! move your feet around!

nuqit (coming) by land, (travelling) along the bank of the river (as opposed to travelling by boat)

-q' in such a way, like...

q'a:de' after a while

q'a:xis mock orange (wood), Syringa (Philadephus sp., or Prunus caroliniana ?); arrow shaft

q'a:xis-tah-ding name of the southernmost Chilula village

q'ay'- basket

q'ay'je:lwa:tł' burden baskets split in two

q'ay'jint open-work basket of hazel twigs, used for storing unshelled acorns

q'ay'k'isd-e:-ke' Yurok village of Pecwan

q'ay'k'ist hopper or mill basket

q'ay'nehs painted marks on the face or body

q'ay'-no:ng'a:-ding place mentioned in McCann's story of the Scabby Young Man (location unknown)

q'ay'te plate or platter of open-work basketry, sifting basket

q'ay'-te:l shallow pan or plate of open-work basketry, lined with ferns and used for serving food.

q'ay'te:l-miking'-xole:n open work basket with a handle, used to dip rocks out of the fire for cooking

q'ay'timił burden basket

q'ayliwh willow (Salix sp.)

q'ayliwh-tah-ding name of a Chilula village

q'e:- cutting off

q'e:ya'k'e'it'us they cut it off

-q'eh following, after, according to

-q'eh-dinung lined up behind, facing behind; agreeing with

q'ina' also, again, too

-q'it on

q'iwh alder (Alnus sp.)

q'iwh-ding Noble's Ranch

q'iwh-tehs'e'ni-q'it Pine Ridge

q'o:so:s hummingbird (Selasphorus sp.)

q'o:so:s-michwo moth

q'ong' fish eggs, roe

q'osta:n (modern) hat, cap

q'un-'isdiya:n unmarried man, bachelor

q'un-ch'iwilchwil adolescent boy, male teenager

q'unch'iwilchwil-'isdiya:n a man who has never married

q'ung recently, just now, new

q'ung'-kyoh-lay' name of a Chilula village

q'ut enough!

q'ut now, already, still

q'ut...-mił as soon as..., just when...

q'ut-dzi-mił pretty soon

q'ut-dó:ng'-xut it's time!

q'ut-xut that's the truth, that's really the way it is

qa:l it (animal) is going along; it (sound, weather, etc.) comes, travels, is on the move

qawh yew (Taxus)

qawh-kyoh-ch'ołqowh resting place at the Arrow Tree

qawh-kyoh-ding Fort Terwer

qawh-me' Brush Mountain

qehs hookbill salmon

qo worm, maggot

qo:-dziwol-ts a small white worm that is found in acorns

qo:-ne:s acorn worm

qo:-nehwa:n rice

qo:-qot' inchworm

qojita:ng'ayme' placename appearing in a story about two brothers, location not known according to a note ot the text

qos camas (Camassia esculenta)

qultsahsn Indians from Weaverville

qułkyoht raspberries (Rubus)

qus bulb, root

qus-kyoh soaproot (Chloragalum pomeridianum)

qut the long tubular root of the willow, used in basketry

sa'a it is a long time

sa'a:n a round object (e.g. a stone, house, place something that can be held in the hand) lies there, is located there

sa'awiwh she puts it (fire) into her mouth

sa'k'ixa:wh he eats acorn soup, mush

sa'liwh edible grass (general term), clover; wild clover, wild sunflower, watercress, edible greens of any sort

sa'wilay she put it in her mouth

sa'wime:tł' he threw them into his mouth

sa'xa:wh he eats from a bowl, he eats with a spoon

sa'xa:wh acorn mush, acorn soup

sa:- into the mouth

sa:k'iding to his surprise, unexpectedly

sa:ts' common (black) bear (Ursus americanus)

sa:we'liwh name of Sam Brown's maternal grandmother

sahbiley'-t'e' baby blanket made from cottontail rabbit skins

sah-kyoh (larger?) mink

sahwinde'n they went off (to a distance), they left, departed (refers to a group only)

sawhjich I'm putting (e.g., seeds) into the (my) mouth, I'm eating seeds by the handful

sawhna:t I lick it in my mouth, I taste it

se:la:n I was born

se:law I am tired

se:t'ot' shell of small sea animal, used for decoration

sehł'a:n I have it, possess it, own it

sehłgya:s I broke it

sehłq'a'n I built a fire

sehłtik I pinched it; I milked (the cow)

sehłxa:n I have it (a filled container) lying there

sid'ut it (cloth, blanket) has been thrown flat

siday it (animal) stays there

sidite:ch' we (2) lie there

sike:ts' thin bark of deciduous trees, e.g. oak; shell (of a nut)

sike:ts'i-q'it Bloody Camp

sikilawh a type of cricket

sikin-chwing pine forest (archaic term)

sikinchwin-mitah-ding name of a Chilula village

silay several objects lie somewhere (e.g., dishes, shoes, rocks, sticks, bones, etc.); a rope (string, line, etc.) lies somewhere

sile'n it became

silis ground squirrel (Citellys beechey)

silkit (cloud, fog, smoke) lies there, hangs there

silq'a:s it (round object) lies there, having been thrown or dropped

siltsit' it is knotted

silwa:tł' it (e.g. stick) lies there, having been thrown or dropped

silxut' it (e.g. board, cloth) lies there flat, flattened out

siłiq' a dough-like, mud-like object lies somewhere

siłkyo:s it lies there (e.g., a blanket, cloth, thin fabric)

siłkyo:s-kya' ceremonial skirt ornamented with shells or beads, worn on special occasions

siłte:n it (animal) lies there dead

simiwe:Giy'ts I became little

simiwhGiy'ts I am little, small, young

sinsing "pain"; disease-causing entity that is believed to be sucked out by an Indian doctor

sintil sucker; bullhead

sisil-whe:na:wh I'm getting weak, exhausted, giving out from fatigue

sita:n a long, stick-like object lies somewhere

site:n it (e.g. animal) lies there

siwe:n it (pack, load) lies there

siwhda'ung I have it (e.g. stone) in my possession

siwhdiya:n I am old

siwhq'uts' I am cold

siwhse:l I am warm, hot

siwhwe I kill it (one animal)

siwhye:n I'm standing

sixa:n a filled container lies somewhere (e.g., a bucket of water, cup of coffee, lake, pond)

so:king' fir limb

sonsol empty, hollow

sulkyoh wild celery

sulxose:ge chipmunk (Eutamias)

suqe:-q'it name of a former village located in the Willow Creek valley

-t'a:w above, on the upper side of, uphill from

-t'ah away, apart, escaping from

t'e' blanket (general term for both traditional and modern blankets)

t'e'-diydiłkyo:s wren

t'e'-naywe tramp, hobo

t'e:w raw, uncooked, unripe

t'e:wing a novice Indian doctor, one who has not yet been fully "cooked" by the Kick Dance

t'ehxich young girl (before puberty)

t'ewh charcoal, coals

t'ewhłiwhin coal

t'un'-na:k'idil cottonwood (Populus sp.)

t'un'-nahsma:ts' redbud, Judas tree (Cercis occidentalis)

t'un'-niłwe' greasewood

t'un'sohch small (baby) suckerfish

t'un-chwing California laurel, pepperwood (Umbellularia californica)

t'unchwing-k'isxun-ding Wa'asey

t'unchwing-kyoh-ding a name applied to two distinct places on the Klamath River: Wohkel and Wohkero

t'unchwin-tah-ch'ing' Ertlerger (part of Weitchpec)

t'unq' fall (season)

t'unq'-ch'idilye older term for the (fall) Jump dance

t'unq'-no:'ondil acorn-gathering claim

t'unq'-ts'isday acorn camp

ta'e'iwhqot I poke them out of the fire

ta'k'imił-ding village of Hostler Ranch

ta'k'imił-di-yima:ni-yiduq resting place on the trail to Redwood Creek

ta'k'imiłxwe the people of the village of Hostler Ranch (Ta'kimiłding) and more generally the people of the downstream half of Hoopa Valley

ta'na:n water (to drink)

ta'na:n-łiwhin coffee

ta'na:n-me'-ch'e:wilin faucet

ta'na:n-na:naydits-ding eddy

ta'na:n-na:niwe:sile'n Trinity River, as a power one should pray to

ta'na:n-xaywhiwh pump

ta'wilay they started off in their canoes

ta'wiłta:tł' they started the Boat Dance

ta'winta:n he started off in his canoe

ta:- into or through the water

ta:- dispersing into fine pieces

ta:- water

ta:'ułtul the Boat Dance, a segment of the White Deerskin Dance which is performed on canoes in the river

ta:'uxiwh they (canoes) float away

ta:dehch small bird hawk, sparrow hawk (Falco sparverius, American Kestrel)

ta:dinung drinking

ta:k'ine:nde'n it shone into the water

ta:k'iwe:ltsil-q'it name of a village located opposite the mouth of South Fork; part of łe:l-ding

ta:k'iwh'a:l I'm cutting (fish) up into pieces (for cooking)

ta:ke' Wiyot group at the mouth of Mad River; also the village there; according to Sapir and Golla (2001:1011; map D, item 33), the "Mad River, from Blue Lake to the mouth"

ta:ke'-ch'e:wilin-ding Wiyot village of Patawat

ta:kiwh sweathouse

ta:lqe:t fishing platform

ta:n forest spirits who look after game

ta:na'wilła:t she went through the water

ta:na'wiłqe:t he started back across the river (in a canoe)

ta:na'xost'a:ts' they cut him up to pieces

ta:na:k'iwe:sinch'e'-te you will blow out to sea (addressing the wind)

ta:na:yiwhdime' placename from a medicine formula for purification after handling a corpse (unknown location)

ta:naystse:tł' it pounded them to pieces

ta:nayxohsdow they cut him to pieces

ta:ng'a:-ding point of land, peninsula

ta:ng'ay it extends into the water (e.g., a pole sticking out from the bank, a point of land)

ta:ng'ay-me' Trinidad Head

ta:ng'ay-q'it name of a village located at Salyers; part of łe:l-ding

ta:ng'e:tł' they were sticking out (in the water)

ta:n-k'iwingxoya:n mythical being

ta:nune:łq'ahs-te I'll throw you back into the river

ta:n-xwa:'a:ne ta:n doctor

ta:q' three

ta:q'i-dikin three hundred

ta:q'idiminłung thirty

ta:q'i-tehs'ay three-pointer

ta:sił steam

ta:wehs'a' it will project into water

ta:wha:wh I'm wading in the water, wading across (creek)

ta:wilin-ding where a stream flows into the ocean

ta:wina'n drinking

ta:ya'imil they throw things into the river

ta:yde:tł' we (2) waded

ta:ysch'iwhe' soot from the boards above the sweathouse fire, used for making face-paint

ta:ysts'e:y' sweathouse firewood

-tah among, around (a place); too, as well, among the others, at times, either...or...

tah- out of the water, out of the fire

tah'ing'awh take it (e.g. stone) out of the water! take it out of the fire!

tahch'ilo:s he pulls (gill net) out of the water, he pulls a net-load of fish to shore

tahch'ina:wh he comes out of the water, fire; (the dancers) come out of the dance, quit dancing

tahch'iswe:n he carried it out (a salmon from the water)

tahda'a'a' she customarily bathes

tahdehsde'tł' they (fish) had come ashore

tahdehsla:t it (salmon, canoe) came ashore

tahdehsya someone walked out of a boat

tahdindil surffish, smelt

tahk'iwhjeh I'm going to seine, use a gill net

tahna'udmiwh he swims out of the water back to shore

tahna:'awhliwh I take them out of the fire

tahna:'ista:n she took it out of the water

tahna:'usdiyay he got out of a boat, disembarked

tahna:'uste:n he took it out of the fire again

tahna:se:wha:l I hooked it out of the water

tahna:xo:'awh they jumped out of the fire

tahnaysya'n it thawed

tahnayxohswa:tł' it threw him out of the water

tahse:nch'e' Emma Frank's other name

tahsyay the group went off, dispersed (each to his or her own place)

-tah-xw amongst, amidst (a group of people, an area)

tahya'undil they get out of the boats

tahyidiłkit Lake at the head of Horse Linto Creek

tawhdina:n I'm drinking

tawhk'ił I'm ripping, tearing it to pieces

tawhtik I'm squeezing it (e.g. apple)

tawhye:wh I rub it into a fine powder, crush it up fine

-te will... (future tense)

te'e'iwhq'a:s I throw them into the water

te'ił they swim along

te'itiwh it always floated

te'iwha:wh I am going into the water

te:digit it (flock, crowd, herd of animals) ran off

te:diky'o:ts' it stretched itself

te:diqe:t they (clouds) were sliding

te:lit it burned, started to burn

te:lma:s cigarette

te:lma:s-wilchwe:n a cylindrical buckskin headband stuffed with grass, with redheaded woodpecker scalps sewn on

te:łiq' it has started to rot

te:nch'e' there is a wind (coming up)

te:se:whiwh I sipped it, sucked it in

te:se:xits' I fell, tripped

te:sehłk'il I tore it

te:sehłma:s I rolled it along

te:sehłtsow I bent it over

te:siwh'e'n I'm looking, taking a look, looking on

te:tehłto'n it danced along stepwise

te:w in the water, underwater

te:wina:whing' larger mink (Mustela vison)

te:witł'o:n they are woven together

te:w-na:k'ixo'a:n bug, insect that walks around under water

te:w-nahłch'uq' bullfrog

te:y'e'n I have looked

teh- into the water

teh'iliw it dives into the water

teh'ił'awh they crawl in the water

teh'ing'awh put it (e.g. stone) into the water!

tehch'e'iliwh he puts it in the water

tehch'e'iłtiwh they put it (a baby) into the water

tehch'e'imil he throws them (roots) into the water

tehch'e'itiwh she puts it in the water

tehch'iliw diving duck

tehch'iwehst'iky' they (warriors) reached in a line to the water

tehch'iwidtsow he bent into the water

tehch'iwilłah-te he was about to run into the water

tehch'iwingqot she put it into the water

tehjung' small black water beetle, said to be poisonous

tehk'e'iyawh they (deer) go into the water

tehk'e:'its-te I will shoot (into the water)

tehk'iłky'ots' put dumplings into water!

teh-k'its'a mythical "lion"

tehk'iwehsch'e' it blew in the water

tehk'ixis kingfisher (Megaceryle alcyon, Belted Kingfisher)

tehk'ixolxit mythical water monster, alligator

tehk'ixołqowh-kyoh pelican (Pelecanus)

tehla:n whale

tehł'in-te it will be enough

tehł-na'we quiver

tehłq'it ordinary dancers in the Jump Dance

tehłwe' it (grease, snow, ice) is melting, has started to melt

tehmil sack, woven from Indian twine

tehna'de'iłwul she pours it into the water

tehna'wila:t she floated back in the water

tehna:'une:l it plays in water

tehna:de'ilya' they (deer) stand in the water

tehna:diwing'a' it stood up in the water

tehna:l'iwh it dripped into the water

tehna:ldidow-te it (fog) will draw back

tehna:na'k'iwiłdiw he has washed, cleaned it (with water)

tehna:wehsle'n it flowed down into it (mush)

tehnehsnoy clams, mussels

tehno'diwinta'tł he stepped in the water

tehsch'e there is a wind blowing

tehsde:tł' it started to snow

tehsdiqeh-te: they (clouds) will come shoving themselves along

tehsjehch swallow (Hirundo rustica, Barn Swallow)

tehsjehji-mike' basket design apparently unique to the Hupa

tehsla:t it had floated away

tehwa:'ut-te I will throw it (a blanket) in water

tehwehłqoch'-te I'm going to hurl it (stick) in the water

tehwidliw diving

tehwidqot' it tumbled into the water

tehwilts'it they sank

tehwił'awhil they crawl (along in the water)

tehwingxits' it dropped into the water

tehxa:ch'e' freshwater crab, crawfish

tehxa:ch'ech scorpion

tehya'k'e'ichwa' they throw them into the water

tidil-ding Janes Creek

tidtsow it bends, is easily bent

tilohs drag it away! (e.g., wood, brush), lead it (e.g., horse) with a rope!

tiloy' get out of the way! give room! make way!

tilqoł crawl off! creep off!

tilte' it is strong

tilts'it it will always be

tilyoł it's swelling up

tił'awh (several animals) move off, set off walking

tiłky'ots' stretch it (e.g., rubber band, chewing gum)!

tiłmowh carry it along hanging (from your hand)!

tiłtah spread it out (e.g., something folded up, contents of a bag)!

tiłwich tip it over!

tiłxeh track it (animal)!

tiłxit slide it (bulky object)!

tim a bathing spot for menstruating women; any place you train for good luck or power

tima' there is a famine

tim-na'me menstruating woman

tin trail, road

ting very

ting'awh take it away!

ting'iwha:wh I'm getting lost, going astray, losing my way

ting'wilła:t he ran away

ting'xine:wh he uses bad language, swears, speaks improperly, "speaks against the rules"

ting'xine:wh blasphemy; words or actions that are "against the rules", particularly during religious dances

tingxiniwidye:wh tabooed speech, bad language, swearing; tabooed words ("swearing") that must not be used during religious dances

tingxo:ng'a:n they ran away

tingxołtiwh kidnap him! steal him away!

tin-łe:na:ning'a:-ding fork in a road or trail

tin-nahł'awh pack train

tin-ne:s the trail leading from the danceground at Hostler Ranch back to miq'ich'ing' (the upper bench with tan oaks)

tintahch'ing'-wha:'a:ne another term for tracing doctor

tintah-k'iłchwe unmarried mother, mother of an illegitimate child

tintah-k'iwungxoya:n "Bigfoot", forest giant in local folklore

tintah-ningxa't'e:n largest owl

tintah-xixe:x chickadee, bushtit (Parus gambeli, Mountain Chickadee; P. rufescens, Chestnut-backed Chickadee; and Psaltriparus minimus, Bushtit)

tinyiwh move off, away!

tinyohs pull it!

-tis over

tismil large (black or golden) eagle (Aquila chrysætos, Golden Eagle)

tit'aw-łiq'a:w mythical bird whose wings are said to scatter Indian money

tit'aw-łiqay mythical bird

tits' cane, walking stick, staff

-tiwa among, in the midst of

tiwh'awh I'll carry it (e.g. stone) along

tiwha:wh I'm going off

tiwhch'it let me tire it out

tiwhch'it I'm getting tired out, weak from exhaustion

tiwhchwe I'm lining them up, putting them in a line

tiwhchwing I am growing

tiwhchwit I'm measuring something (with my arm)

tiwhchwo:k I'm brushing things off, sweeping them up

tiwhdiqits' I'm twisted

tiwhle I'm pulling it, tugging at it (rope, pole, etc.)

tiwhliw I swim along (under water)

tiwhloy' I'm leading it (e.g. horse) with a rope

tiwhmiwh let me start swimming

tiwhqits' I'm twisting it, turning it

tiwhwis I lurch, duck, dodge

tiwhxiwh I'm going to haul it off

tiwich'ilił-te they'll be run down with weakness

tiwimah shore, beach

tiwiwhchwilił-te I shall pull them down with my hand

tiwiwhdilił-te I'll throw (snow, hail)

tixiwh they're floating off

tiya'winde:tł' they all got lost

-tł'a:n it the absence of, missing

tł'eh- crotch, pubis (archaic)

tł'iwh rattlesnake (Crotalus), snake (in general)

tł'iwh-minchwiwh design equivalent to Yurok and Karok designs also called "snake-nose"

tł'iwh-mixung' weasel (Mustela)

tł'iwhxa:n eel, lamprey (Lampetra tridentata)

tł'iwhxa:n-ma'a:disch a type of cricket

tł'iwhxa:n-mije:lo' small circular basketry trap for catching eels

tł'iwhxa:n-mił-tahch'iłtiw eel medicine

tł'iwhxa:n-mina:' hailstones

tł'o'-nehs-ding Quimby

tł'o:q' grassy place, prairie

tł'o:q'-da'kya:w kingbird (Tyrannus verticalis, Western Kingbird)

tł'o:q'i-ji-ding Serper

tł'o:q'-na:sa'un-ding place mentioned in McCann's medicine formula for going among rattlesnakes (location unknown)

tł'o:q'-nahł'awh another name for coyote (not common)

tł'oh grass (general term)

tł'ohch bunch grass; lawn grass

tł'ohday traditional grain and seed mixture (like modern granola)

tł'ohday' pinole, wild oats

tł'oh-diłdije:w tarweed

tł'oh-dime:n-ch Scouler's St. Johns wort (Hypericum formosum var. Scouleri)

tł'oh-dit'in sweet grass

tł'ohdun'te a type of weed

tł'oh-kya' skirt made of grass or maple bark ripped into fringes

tł'oh-kya'-t'e:n female man-eating monster who lurks about old camping places

tł'oh-kyo:w a place described by Goddard as a "mountain near the Eight-mile camp on the Redcap trail from Hupa to Orleans" (Hupa Texts, p. 300)

tł'ohł strap, packstrap, string

tł'ohł-ch'il'e:n hazel switches

tł'oh-ma'ch type of bunch grass

tł'ohma'ji-ding Red Cap Prairie

tł'oh-me:we cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus)

tł'oh-mitahxwe Shasta Indians, in particular the Shastas living on the Salmon River and on the upper part of the New River

tł'oh-q'a' type of bunch grass

tł'ohq'a'-kyowi-q'it Pony Butte

tł'ohq'a'-nehsnoy-q'it Sugar Pine Mountain

tł'ohsch'il'e:n hazel bush; hazel brush switches

tł'oh-tehł bear grass (Xerophyllum tenax)

tł'ohtse' cattail, tule, flat tule (Typha latifolia)

tł'ohwhung-q'it Bald Hill

tł'ow'-xontehł-ji-me' Hayfork, territory of the Hayfork Wintus

to any body of water, ocean

to:-dingq'och' salt water; ocean

to:me:q'onje' large river beetle

to:mine:-k'iya:whe' seagull (Larus sp.)

to:-miq'i-na:k'ixo'un water skipper

to:n'-dinun-ding name of a Chilula village

to:nah-ji-ding Former Yurok village of Lo'olego

to:nchwen'-xoda:ng'ay rapids

to:nehwa:n black obsidian, in particular the large, ceremonial blades of black obsidian carried by principal dancers in the White Deerskin Dance

to:-nichwe'n rough water; bad luck

to:-tehsyay flood, high water in the river

to:-wingkyah the water is getting, has gotten high (in the river), the flood waters are rising

to:xode:lding Captain John's other name

tohna:y fish, eels, general term for all edible water creatures

tohxotawe willow bushes growing along the river

toliwh type of clover

toliwh-q'it uphill from Hostler Ranch village

tołgit "black acorns", "Indian cheese"

tołgit-q'it place on bank, on the opposite side of the Trinity from łeht'e:t'e'-ch'iłchwe'-ding

tołts'a'ts'-ding name of a village at the mouth of Supply Creek

tołts'a'ts'-din-nilin Supply Creek

tonchwing-q'it Murek

tosił warm water, lukewarm water, water that has been heated on a fire

tosq'uts' spring (of cold water), cold water

ts'a'kya:w small blackish eel

ts'a'-xosin orphan, a pitiful person

ts'a:-dilqay hornet

ts'e:y brush, bush

ts'e:y-ding grave

ts'e:y-łitsow wild lilacs; myrtle; myrtle twigs (Ceanothus thyrsiflorus)

ts'e:y-me' graveyard

ts'e:y-mitah-xona:da'a' common jaybird (Aphelocoma coerulescens, Scrub Jay)

-ts'eh feel, taste, be perceived (so), be heard

ts'ehdiwitse' upside down

ts'ehdiyah I'm happy, glad, pleased

ts'iduq straight up

ts'iduqi-na'we ceremonial quiver, skin for carrying arrows

ts'ilun-ding Norton Field

ts'iłtin'-tł'ohł bowstring, made of twisted deer-sinew

ts'iłting' rifle, bow, weapon

ts'iłting'-yahslit-ding a good place for getting pine roots near Ta'kimiłding, mentioned in a description of how to gather and prepare roots for basketry

ts'iłtiya:ne:s soldier

ts'ima'-ch'ixowinse'n he became quiet

ts'ima'-xosin it's quiet, a quiet person

ts'imiłch'itsit a small maul

ts'in-sila:-ding name of a Chilula village

ts'in-tehł turtle

ts'isda:ts' he broke it off

ts'isnah bee (general term)

ts'it straight

ts'it'a'nye it is thin (like a leaf or paper)

ts'it'ung'yehts dime

ts'iwahsilay shelled acorns, acorn meat

ts'iwhla:n I'm playing (ballgame, tag, some physical sport)

ts'iwint'a'nye' it got thin

ts'o:lusge millipede, thousand-legged worm

ts'o:-mił-ch'iye:wh coltsfoot (medicinal herb)

ts'ohsda' bodily weakness

-ts'á:ng' (feel that) it might be...

tse rock, stone

tse'ehdzi- a little while

tse'iłmut' women's dice game

tse'me:q'-nint'ik' tassels of shells that hang from the fur hair-tying strings worn by women

tse:'is Campbell Field prairie

tse:'is-miyeh below Campbell Field prairie

tse:-dilqay grey hair; grey-haired person

tse:-ding name of a camping place located in the Willow Creek valley

tse:-k'iłje:n potato bug

tse:-k'ite:lmuts'-ding a circle of rocks on top of a mountain; a place where Indian Doctors train

tse:-k'iwotł'-ding a danceground on the river bar just to the west of Ts'ilunding, opposite the mouth of Beaver Creek; one of the main dancegrounds for the White Deerskin Dance

tse:-kin-ding a place on Maple Creek

tse:kyoh-xa:tine:-me' placename appearing in a medicine formula for war, location not known

tse:lin blood

tse:ling-min medicine for bleeding from a wound, passing blood

tse:lna:t' rocks used to cook acorn soup

tse:lnehwa:n it is red

tse:l-nehwa:n red obsidian, in particular the large, ceremonial blades of red obsidian carried by principal dancers in the White Deerskin Dance

tse:lo:ch'e' flat rocks on beach

tse:łch'e' knife, iron

tse:łch'e'-ding Wełkwew

tse:łch'e'i-q'it Hundred Acre Prairie

tse:łch'e'-mił white person

tse:łch'e'-miq'it-nahł'its train

tse:łch'e'-nilin Pine Creek

tse:-łe:dłiwh bricks

tse:-łitsow hard, blue stone; serpentine

tse:-me'-yehky'a'a:n cave

tse:-me:q' canyon

tse:-me:w-na:k'ixo:'a:n a type of lizard

tse:-mit'ah a danceground and camping place during the White Deerskin Dance; where the Boat Dance takes place

tse:-mit'ah-nilin'-q'eh Hostler Creek

tse:-miyeh Chimariko village located at the mouth of New River

tse:-na:l'a:-ding name of a village near xonsah-ding

tse:n-ding Chimariko village located at Burnt Ranch

tse:ning-q'it Ironside Mountain

tse:-no:ng'a:-ding Former Yurok village of Noshtsku'm

tse:-nunts'in-ding Katimin

tse:-nunts'ing Sugar Loaf

tse:-q'e:t' a small black bird, the size of a robin (apparently Cinclus mexicanus, Water Ouzel or Dipper)

tse:-q'i-chwun'-to:-me:ne:q' place mentioned in Emma Lewis' medicine formula for the birth of a first child (location unknown)

tse:-q'i-na'dił-ding Erner, at Blue Creek

tse:-q'it site at Mill Creek

tse:-q'i-ya:ng'ay ground squirrel (Citellus beechey)

tse:-sigya:s the bluff upstream from Willow Creek

tse:tidmil-q'it Telescope Peak

tse:wehsle'n it bled

tse:wiling it is bleeding

tse:wina:l-ding village of Senalton

tse:wun'unt'e edible plant (sp.) with big leaves

tse:wun-e:-me' place mentioned in Emma Lewis' medicine formula to protect children (location unknown)

tse:-xahł-te:l flat, round obsidian rock, resembling a ceremonial obsidian blade but circular (mentioned in myths)

tse:-xayts'a' a small pounding basin in bedrock, used for making medicine for luck and other purposes; bedrock mortar

tse:-xut' mortar rock, mill rock

tse:-yeh cave; hole dug along the river for catching fish

tse:yeh-ding place mentioned in the story of the Scabby Young Man, location unknown

tse:-yehk'ixa:wh place along the Boat Dance route, near the village of Miskut

tse:-yehk'ixa:wh-q'it name of a flat near Campbell Creek

tseh gas, flatulence, fart

tseh'iłxit slip the foreskin skin back on your penis!

tseh'intł'ohwh braid it!

tsehłqay quartz

tsehna:witł'o:n it is braided

tsehq'a:n Redwood Ridge

tsehwilxit foreskin

tsin'tehłkyo:t he ran for his life

tsing' star

tsing'-q'ah sperm, semen (vulgar term)

tsiq' hair tie

tsit first

tsiwung' head-hair

tsiyuntehsdilde:tł' we all ran for our lives

tso:k'ine daddy longlegs

tsumehstł'o:n woman

tsun-ding Omen

tsung apron, made of fringed deerhide and worn in front of the skirt (kya') by women

-tuq between

wa'k'e'iłtsil they rip a hole through it by pounding

wa'k'iningwhe' he dug through

wa'nto:t rotten-acorn stew, made from mouldy acorns left to soak in water for a week or more

wa'ułqe:t he shoves it through something

wa:- giving to, passing through

wa:k'inilit they (sticks) were burned through

wa:k'inintsehł it was heated through

wa:k'iwidqot it (ear) was punched through

wa:ky'a'a:n there is a hole through it, it is perforated

-wa:n close to

-wa:n from, from it (leaving it behind), concerning it, to it, about it (in phrases)

wa:n-di- off from on top of something, uncovering something

wa:ninyahwh go through it! go to it!

wa:nun'diwinde:tł' they all got back off of it

wa:nunde'iwhsow I scrape it off again

wa:nung'xiwine:whił-te someone talks about it

wa:y- missing or moving beyond something

wa:ya'niłq'a:s they knocked them out (bottoms from baskets)

-wah alongside of, (a short distance) away from, separated from

way'inahwh he passes off (the trail)

wayk'idiyawh (dog) gnaws on (a bone)

wayninde'iwh-e:-te you'll be able to see through it (fog)

waywing'a it (trail) forks off

we:- jaw (archaic)

we:dił let's go!

we:kya:w I am getting big

we:łow I got boils

we:ne:s I got taller, longer

we:q'uts' I got cold

we:qits' I got crooked, twisted

we:qo' I stooped down

we:se:l I got warm

we:tehł I became broad

we:wa:n I killed them

wehłch'ich' I have a boil

wehłchwil I got wet

wehsq'a:s it lay there

wehst'e it always was

wehstsun-te it will be seen

wha sun, moon

wha'a:winiw' my ways of doing things, my habits

wha'ut my wife

wha:'uło' I laugh

wha:dichwing my paternal aunt, father's sister

wha:sch'e' my niece (sister's daughter)

wha:t my older sister

wha:wh my nephew (sister's son)

wha:-wile I am satiated, my belly is full, I got enough to eat

wha:-wilxa'n I like the taste of it, it tastes good to me.

whe I, me, as for me

whe'k'iliwh he calls my bet

whe:da'ay my head

whe:da'ay-yehwinyay I heard it

whe:dinung-ding alongside of me, next to me

whe:dze' my penis, male genitals

whe:k'ine' I have a (small) share, I get just enough to get by

whe:lchwil I am growing (a crop)

whe:łkyoh it got to be my size, it fits me

whe:łkyow what fits me

whe:ne:q' my back; in back of me

whe:nisah far away from me

whe:nts'ing' my back, spine

whe:q' my (woman's) private parts, vagina

whe:ts'ine' my jaw, jawbone, chinbone

whe:we' (something's) bone marrow

whe:xolya:n I have sense

whe:xoya:n (animal) is suspicious of me, shies away from me

whe:y my possessions

which'e:k'e' my guts, intestines, soft belly

which'ich' my elbow

which'ich'inay' my prospective spouse, specifically my (woman's) sister's husband, after the death of my sister; my (man's) brother's wife, after the death of my brother; my husband's brother, after the death of my husband; my wife's sister, after the death of my wife

which'in my paternal grandmother, father's mother

which'indine' my deceased father

which'ing'-'iloy' play the stick game against me!

which'ing'ah something shielding me

which'ing'ah-na:lma:l my diaphragm

which'ing'-no'niłwich he tipped it towards me

which'itiłwul' my ribs

which'iyungxe' my deceased mother

which'ut' my afterbirth, placenta

whichwa:n'-dahyiwixa:l my intestines, colon

whichwe:xing' my anus, asshole

whichwiwe my maternal grandfather, mother's father

whichwo my maternal grandmother, mother's mother

whichwoq' my testicles

whichwut the side of my body

whida' my mouth, lips

whida'-ginje' my gums

whida'-ma:ts'e' my lips

whida'-me'-ch'ixe:ne:wh he answered me

whida:n'-sa'a:n I have a hoard; I am stingy

whida:-sits' my lips (including flesh around lips)

whida:w' my whiskers, beard

whide:naw I'm shot

whidehch my younger sister

whidisqay' my lungs

whije:'-ding (right) in front of me, facing me

whije:'e:nde'n I fainted

whije:'ginje' my breastbone (the cartilage above the pit of the stomach)

whije:'-mich'ing' my back, at the middle of my back (or chest)

whije:'sil-ch'itehs'a:n he got on my nerves, he began to bug me

whije:'sil-tehsyay I got tired of it, disgusted with it

whije:'-tilts'it I get scared, surprised, taken unawares

whije:'xw at my breast, in front of me

whije:y' my state of mind, way of thinking; heart, breast (metaphorical)

whije:y'-na:nt'un I am worried

whijiw' my ear

whijiw'-xiniwinye:wh you whispered

whijonjoł my kidneys

whik'ida:y' my flower

whik'isdiya'n my parent, parents; my elders

whik'iwiyul-me'-nolxit' my stomach

whik'iya:whe' my forehead, temple

whikil my younger brother

whiking'a:gya:n' my penis, male genitals

whikiwun I am asleep

whiky'a:ng'ay my arm

whiky'a:ng'ay-me:w my armpit

whiky'o'niwa:n my lover (not spouse)

whiky'o:ts'e' my sinew

whiky'ung'awh move it (e.g., stone) away from me! take it away from me!

whikya:ne my abdomen, belly, insides, guts; my mind, attention (abstract metaphor)

whikya:y my (woman's) daughter's child

whikyo:n' my odor, body odor

whikyulah-'a:k'idyah I got angry, mad

whikyun-k'iyah I'm having a miscarriage

whikyun-na:way I think, consider

whikyun-sa'a:n my heart

whikyun-tehsyay I thought (about something)

whikyun-tina:wh my feelings about something

whila' my hand, finger

whila'-ke'ts' my fingernails, claw

whila'-kin' my wrist

whila'-mimisGe'gitse' my fingers

whila'-mimisGiye'ts(-ding) my little finger

whila'-mimisGiye'tse'-mich'in'-na:da'ay my ring finger

whila'-mine:ji-na:da'ay my middle finger

whila'-minikya:w' my thumb

whila'minikya:w'-mich'ing'-na:da'ay my index finger

whila'-mituq-na:da'ay my middle finger

whila'-qot' my knuckles

whila'-yehk'iwilt'ow my glove(s)

whila:-tsing my brother-in-law (diminutive)

whilba wheel barrow

whilije'-me'-suxa:n my bladder

whilo:q'e' the calf of my leg

whilxung' my semen, ejaculation

whił-dinił'ay I know how to do it, I understand it

whiłilyo' my pal, friend, boyfriend, girlfriend, sweetheart, lover

whiłing my companion, buddy, cousin, relative, older brother

whiłkyow it is my size

whił-na:dil my companion

whił-na:tehłdida:wh I'm going home by car

whił-qa:l my in-law

whiłt'oh it's stinging me

whiłtishch'e' my sister (man speaking); my brother (woman speaking)

whiłtuch' tattoo me!

whił-xowidligy I was told

whima'uchwing my paternal grandfather, father's father

whima:lyo' my friend, relative, kinsman

whime'-no:k'ilxide' my stomach

whime:ch'e'chwing my mother-in-law

whimił-ky'o'ołchwide' my index finger

whimit' my belly, stomach

whina'k'idilyay' my collarbone

whina:' my eye

whina:' mits'e:tł'e' discharge from my eyes

whina:'e:nde'n I became blind

whina:'-łe:łt'a'n I closed my eyes

whina:'-sehłqoch' I winked my eye

whina:'-tł'e:t'e' discharge from my eyes

whina:'ułdow he dodges me, acts furtively so as to escape from me

whina:-ch'iwinda' he waited for me

whina:de my forearms

whina:do:nse' my eyebrows

whina:ndiw' my acorn picking lot

whina:q'ito:' my tears

whina:-t'ung' my eyelashes

whinchiwh-k'ito:' my snot, mucus

whinchiwh-yehky'a'a:n my nostril

whinchwiwh my nose

whinchwiwh-kin'-ding the butt of my nose

whine:jit-'ułtsah half of me, half the distance around me

whing song (general term)

whingkine' the small of my back

whingq'a'y' my maternal aunt, mother's sister

whingwoch my older brother

whiniłwho'n it suits me, does me good

whiniłwil I'm drunk

whining' my face

whiningq'ich'ing' the roof of my mouth

whinist'e' my body

whinist'e' na:xowiniwhił-te I'll return happy

whinist'e'-me:q' my female genitals (euphemism), in my (woman's) private parts

whinist'e'-xoniwh I am happy

whiniwilte:n I was brought here

whino:ng'ay'ding alongside of me, near to where I am, next to me, in my neighborhood

whiq'ah my fat (on my body)

whiq'ay' my hip, thigh; the inside of my leg

whiq'e:y my brother-in-law

whiq'ehjiwa' my armpit, armpit hair

whiq'eh-k'iłchwit push my load up on my back! help me with my load!

whiq'i-ch'ixine:wh my lawyer

whiq'is next to me

whiq'it-wing'a' an item of regalia was put on by me, I wore (regalia)

whiq'os my neck

whiq'os-kin'-ding the base of my neck

whiq'os-q'eh the nape of my neck; my throat

whiq'us-t'a:w' my pubis, underbelly, crotch

whiqa:qe' my throat, tonsils, gullet

whiqe:ch'e' my hip, pelvis

whiqe:-jiwol' my ankle

whiqe:-kin' my lower leg

whiqot' my knee, joint

whiqunkin' my shoulders

whiquntuq my shoulder

whis' my uncle (mother's brother)

whis'a:n my habits, feelings, way of thinking, reputation, spirit

whisa:nyay it (a song) came into my mouth

whisa:sta:n my tongue

whisah the inside of my mouth

whise:lwe:n he kills me

whise:tol' my cheeks

whisehłmut' he slapped me

whisit' my liver

whisits' my skin

whisowoł my throat, windpipe

whisowoł-yehwe:lay I put a necklace around my neck

whit'ah my pocket

whit'ahdiy' my chest, breast

whita' my father

whita:y my uncle (father's brother)

whitahna:wilay' my inheritance

white:dilt'e' my brother's child (son or daughter), my niece, my nephew

white:l' my spleen

white:ltsit' my hair cut

whitile I relish it, am fond of it, like to eat it

whitilte'e' my muscle, the strength of my (arm, body)

whitł'a' my buttocks, rear-end

whitł'a'-ch'ing' the lower part of my body, my bottom

whitł'a'-q'eh the space between my buttocks; my anus

whitł'a'-ts'ine' my hip, pelvis

whitł'eh-kin' my waist

whitł'eh-ts'int'a' my pubic bone

whitł'eh-wa' my pubic hair

whitł'isch'e' my gall

whits'e:l' my forearm, arm

whits'e:q' my navel, belly button

whits'e:q'it my umbilical cord

whi-ts'iduqi-ya:ng'ay my hip

whits'in'-diq'a:n my shin

whits'ine' my bone, leg

whits'ine'-winta'n I got killed

whits'int'a' my forehead

whits'o:' my (woman's) breasts, milk

whitse' my head

whitse:' my (man's) daughter

whitse:king' back of my head

whitse:łiq'e' my brain

whitse:-qe:ch'e' my skull

whitse:tł'iwa' my (esp. woman's) long head-hair

whitsestł'o:n' my braided hair (in na:na:wiloy' style)

whitsida' the top of my head, my crown

whitsing' my flesh, meat

whitso:l' my vagina, female genitals

whitso:y my (man's) daughter's child

whitutł' my flank, the side of my body

whiwa:-me'niłchwit he loaned me some money

whiwe my sister-in-law (woman speaking)

whiwe:ch'e' my sister-in-law (man speaking)

whiwe:da' my chin

whiwe:sits' my lips

whiwe:ts'ing' my jaw, jawbone, chinbone

whiwhday' (inside of) my throat

whiwhday'-no:k'inilts'it I hiccuped

whiwhday'-wing'a' I hiccuped

whiwhunch'e' my father-in-law

whiwina:wehsditiw I lost the race

whiwo' my teeth, tooth

whiwun-ch'ina:wh he is visiting me

whiwunda:n my son-in-law

whiwundinchwit wipe me off!

whiwung my female genitals (euphemism)

whiwung-'a:dixudya:n my enemy (i.e., he has shame for me, avoids me)

whiwung'awh give it to me!

whiwunjich give me (e.g., sugar)!

whiwun-na:na:lwin-te it will melt away from me

whiwun-na:niwehsdilay I lost (in gambling)

whiwun-nixohsle' I lost it

whixa:na'te:ng'e'n he looked for me

whixa:q'e' the frame of my body, my skeleton

whixe'-ke'ts' my toenail

whixe'-me:q' the inside, sole of my foot

whixe'-mimisGiye'tse' my toes

whixe'-mimisGiye'tse'-mich'in'-na:da'ay my fourth toe

whixe'-mine:ji-na:da'ay my third (middle) toe

whixe'-minikya:w' my big toe

whixe'minikya:w'-mich'ing'-na:da'ay my second toe (next to big toe)

whixe:-tul' my heel

whixinay' I'm alive, I'm surviving, I'm safe

whixonse:l' my sweat, my (Indian doctor's) power

whixung' my husband

whiya:ch'e' my (woman's) daughter

whiyawh'ut my daughter-in-law

whiye'ch' my breath, breathing

whiyehk'ilxide' my esophagus, throat

whiyehk'ilxit-q'eh my esophagus, throat

whiyul my son's child

who:whe' my name

whot' scar

whunchwing my mother

whung just, only, alone

whung I wonder

wichway dirt (is) piled on, buried

widgil they are running about

widqay' it turned white

widqe:l it (a boat) is going along

widtsit it got crushed

widtsow it turned blue, green

widwa'n it is moldy

widwa:t acorn flour; modern flour

widwhe'n it turned black

wila:l it (single object) is floating along

wilchwe:n step-relative

wilchwe:n it has been made

wilda:l (animal) is running along

wilil (fire) is burning

wilkit they were seized

wilkya:n pregnant woman

wiloy' a small grass bundle headdress tied at the back of the head with buckskin, strung around the head worn in the religious dances

wiloy' it is tied together

wiloy'-wa:ky'a'a:n hair dressed in a doughnut shape

wilq'a'n a fire is burning

wilts'il it passes on (through me)

wiltsa:n it's been seen

wiltuch' it has been tattooed

wiltuch' a tattoo

wilwhol it (e.g. snake) slides along

wilwił-ding evening

wilxa'n it got sweet

wiłchwe'n it started to stink

wiłdung' yesterday

wiłgit it is getting rotten

wiłje'n it got bright, shiny

wiłq'is one side, half of

wiłq'is-kiyiq' wild columbine (Aqurlegsa truucata)

wiłta'n it got soft

wiłtsa:y something (e.g. plant) that has dried up, desiccated

-wina around, passing around, half-way around

windahs it has gotten heavy

windeh window

wing'a' it has come to lie there

wingxa' a filled container comes to lie there; a lake or pond forms, takes shape

winła'n it became lots

winsa'a' it has been a long time

wint'e it always happens, it is always so

wint'e:t therefore

winte:ch' they (dogs) lay there

wintł'its' it got hard, hardened, solidified

winto' (water) has moved somewhere, has reached to somewhere

wiqowhil (animal) is running, trotting along

wits'e:l it (snake, worm) slides, wiggles along

wiwh'ul I'm carrying it along (e.g., a round object, something that can be held in the hand)

wiwhch'ił I'm weak

wiwhchwe:lił-te I will be making it

wiwhchwil I am growing, getting larger

wiwhle:l I'm carrying them along (several objects or rope, string, line)

wiwhle:l I swim along (under water)

wiwhłe:l I'm carrying a dough-like object along (e.g., a lump of dough, a piece of mud, a rotten apple)

wiwhq'unlił-te I will lean it up

wiwhqe:l I'm paddling a canoe, going along in a boat

wiwhtil I'm carrying (an empty basket) along

wiwhwe:l I am packing it along

wixił they (plural object or mass, e.g. logs) float along

wixisil it was falling

wults'a' (water) soaks through (something), leaks out

wun'da'awh thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus)

wun'de'ila:t he floats over it

wun'dilwa:wh they are talking, conversing about it

wun'k'idiwiłxut' he uncovered something

wuna'k'e'ił'e:tł' they hang them onto it

wun-ch'e'ite' he lies there (watching) for it

wun-ch'iniłte:n he brought it (a salmon) to her (an old woman)

wun-de'iling' it flows over

wundidsits' (skin) peels off

wundiłch'ut' peel off bark (from a tree or bush whose bark comes off easily)!

wundimil they (arrows) go through it

wundiwha:wh I'm getting off of it

wundiwhsits' I'm peeling (bark, skin) off, I'm skinning it

wung-'a:dixa:niwidyung' (people) get ashamed about it

wung'xine:wh he talks about it

wung-na:na:ya:ng'e:tł' they were hanging on to him

wung-whikyun-na:way I'm thinking about it

wung-xoje'-ch'o:nda' he has pity, pities someone

wung-xowidilik a story about something, an account of something

wun-na'dil they are busy with it, are occupied with it

wun-na'way he is busy with it, works on it, is occupied with it

wun-na:dya' it is gone around for, things are done

wun-na:ne'iwhtsa:t I always sit down beside it

wun-na:whdiyay I went back to it

wun-na:ya'xolyiw (people) gather things (food, basket materials, acorns, etc.)

wun-nahłtsis something is hanging to it

wun-no'xoniłt'in-te he is going to get him to do things

wun-no:k'e'iwhłiwh I reach for it

wun-nowht'aw I believe it

wun-tohdil you go with it (medicine)

wun-xole:n business, affairs

-xa in pursuit of

xa- in this way

xa' all right! okay!; quickly; that's it, goodbye (informal expression)

xa'a'de'ine' she kept saying that

xa'a'niwehst'e' she was that way

xa'a'uliw he handles it in that way

xa'a'uniw she always does so

xa'a'wilehł-te he will do that way

xa'a:ch'ilaw he did so to them

xa'a:k'itis it is over (others) to that extent

xa'a:na:ch'idyaw she did it that way

xa'a:tilte' (it is) that strong

xa'a:winehł-te it will be that way

xa'a:winiw it is done that way

xa'a:ya'ił'ing they did that

xa'a:ya:xowilaw they were fixed in that way

xa'a:yułchwo:n they are all so pretty

xa'ahł-ch'ide:n' he speaks so (in such a way) to him

xa'ahłdiwine' he is thus spoken to

xa'e:ng'e:tł' they will go (pass under)

xa'gya'ne' goodbye, farewell

xa'indil they (salmon) will pass

xa'inłine:dyo:t they chased each other

xa'k'iwhe he is digging a hole (e.g. well, post hole)

xa'k'iwheh-ji-ding Karuk village at Red Cap Creek

xa'niwinte' he looked for it

xa'ułkyow that much, to that extent

xa'ułtsah that long

xa'unłung there are that many

xa'unt'e it was like that

xa'usdil-me' Hooker's Ridge

xa'wa'awhił-te she will pick out the stones

xa'whinehsyo:t they drove me to the bank

xa'whiwh he is sucking it up

xa'widqot' she squirmed out

xa'wingquch he threw it out

xa'winsow he dug it up; scooped it out

xa'winta:n he dug it up

xa'yo:s he is pulling (a plant) up out of the ground

xa:- up out (of the ground)

xa:'islay she brought them up

xa:'usła:t he ran up

xa:'uswe:n she packed it up (a load to the house)

xa:diniw gopher (less common term)

xa:dits'i-mił every little while

xa:diwuł a plant sprouts, rises (out of the ground)

xa:dmil it flung itself up

xa:dwich it (tree) uprooted itself

xa:k'indimut it boiled up out of something

xa:k'ing'its it shot up

xa:k'inyo:wh it flowed up

xa:k'iwhxa:wh I'm shoveling (dirt) out

xa:k'iwich'e:lił-te the wind will blow out from the ground

xa:k'iwidwhe'-ding the area around Norton Field where there was extensive gold-mining activity

xa:k'iwinyay boil, skin eruption, something puffing up

xa:ky'a'a:n there is an open hole, pit in the ground

xa:l'a' things have grown up there

xa:lde:tł' it is dotted up (as in face-painting)

xa:lła:t it (salmon) jumped up

xa:lqot' it (a tree) was pulled out by bending to one side

xa:na'k'idiłtsit' he cuts off someone's hair, he barbers

xa:na'k'idiłtsit' barber

xa:na'whiste:n he took me up to it

xa:na'wilay he dug them up again

xa:na'wiłte:n he dug it out

xa:na'winchway he dug it up

xa:na:'usde:tł' they reached it (going back up)

xa:na:'uslo:s she dragged it up

xa:na:k'iwhdigit I'm belching up

xa:na:te:s'e'n I'm looking for it

xa:na:wh (pain) comes out (on one's body)

xa:na:ya'se'iłqe:t they shove (the boats) back up

xa:na:ya'widchwa:l they dug up along

xa:naysdikit (cloud, fog, smoke) rose back up

xa:nde'n it got close

xa:ngxe:n he came up (to the surface of the water)

xa:niwhse:l I'm sweating

xa:nt'ik' it (tree) is standing

xa:nte look for it, hunt for it (something you have not had before)

xa:se'iwhxa:wh I bring it up

xa:-si- uphill to the top

xa:sina:wh it (sun, moon, star) rises, peeps over the ridge.

xa:sing'awh take it (e.g., stone) uphill to the top (e.g., from the river to the house)!

xa:sinyahwh go up to the top (of the hill, riverbank)!

xa:t' still, continuing; same; right (there)

xa:t'aheh let it! let him, her! let them!

xa:t'in-e: it will be this way

xa:te:ma:s it (chunks of frost) rolled out of the ground

xa:wehs'a' it stuck up

xa:whidiwiltsit' I got my hair cut

xa:wila:t it floated up to the top

xa:xowilwa:tł' a type of digging bug

xa:xowilwa:tł' hero of myth, "Dug-from-the-Ground"; also a type of digging bug

xa:ya'wehs'a' he sits that way

xa:ya'wiłxa:y they shot it out

xa:yont pigeon (Columba fasciata, Band-tailed Pigeon)

xahłt'iwhge bird of some kind

xahs'a it (trail) comes up

xahschwe:n it grew up (to the sky)

xahslin riffle (in a stream)

xahslin-ding name of a village at the mouth of Horse Linto Creek

xahslin-din-nilin Horse Linto Creek

xahslin-taw "crane", heron (Ardea herodias, Great Blue Heron)

xahslintaw-nehwa:n man-eating crane-like bird that inhabits the head of Horse-Linto (xuhslinding) Creek

xahxe'eh shade, shadow

xay the roots of a conifer (esp. pine or spruce roots), used in basketry

xay winter; year

xayah fishing claim

xayah-me' canyon near Sugar Bowl

xayahme'-ło:q'-mił-tahch'iłtiw fish claim medicine

xay-ch'idilye Jump Dance

xaych'ing'-mina:k'iwilchwe:n things stored away for the winter; things put away for winter use

xay-na:dil winter run of steelhead

xayts'a' (modern) dish, bowl; (traditional) mush basket

xayts'a'-me'-silay cupboard

xe' foot

xe'e'ła:t one should run by

xe'e'wiłq'a:s he threw it away

xe'e'wingqoch' he loped away

xe'e'winyay he passed

xe'e:- away

xe'e:'ile'n they (small things) always lie there

xe'e:diwa:tł'-e it disappears (over a hill)

xe'e:k'e'iwhwhe' I dig down

xe'e:k'iwhmił I am throwing something (scraps, things) away

xe'e:na:'iłkis she pushed it away

xe'e:na:ldidow it drew back

xe'e:ngxits' they (acorns) fall away

xe'e:wilin they lay dropped

xe'e:wiliw it dove by

xe'e:wiłwa:tł' she threw it away

xe'e:wiłyo:l he blew it away

xe'e:ya:xowidme:tł' they had their hair cut (as a sign of mourning)

xe'e:yk'e:łtse:tł' I threw (a rock) away

xe'ewhxiwh I'm hauling it off

xe'q' saliva

xe:nta'n it has reached up to there

xe:q'ay' cradle, baby-basket

xehł pack load (in a basket)

xehłjuq' dried cedar or juniper berries

xehsta:n it (water, sand, a pile of anything) reached up to there

xił dark, murky color

-xin subsisting on, satisfied with

xina:y fresh

xinay friends!

xine:wh language, speech, talk, conversation

xine:wh-mixa:-k'iniwh'a'diłchwe judge (in modern courtroom)

xiniwinye:wh you talked

xis pus, discharge, infection

xiwhnay I escape, reach safety, am safe

xiwhnay I move it back and forth, stir it, agitate it

xiwingxes-te it will itch

xixe:s it itches

xixe:x children, kids

xixiy baby (boy)

xo'a:'unt'e honest, goodnatured

xo'ch true, real (thing); well, really, thoroughly; in a moderate, correct way

xo'-ch'itehs'e'n tracing doctor, clairvoyant, diagnosing doctor

xo'dzi-Koh carefully, thoroughly

xo'dzi-nehwa:n slowly, easily, gently

xo'ji-ch'ing' right (side), on the right

xo'ji-king traditional gambling sticks, "Indian cards"

xo'ji-kya' ceremonial abalone-shell dress

xo'ji-miłtsahch just so far, to a middling distance

xo'ji-xw more and more, more...than ever

xo'osday man (male)

xo:'a:'udyaw corpse (polite term)

xo:diwhxit I ask him (a question)

xo:ta'a:n they ran down

xo:wa'uł they're running along, a group or herd is running along

xo:yta'n I held on to him

xoch'in'-tse:t a small black beetle

xoda'iłq'a:s he began to throw them down

xoda'k'ing'its he shot it down

xoda'-q'eh-nung'a mind him!

xoda'whine:nyo:t they chased me down

xoda'wilay they went down (in canoes)

xoda'wilła:t she ran down the hill

xoda'wilwhot' he slid down

xoda:- down the slope, down to the river

xoda:dgit they had gone over (a ridge)

xoda:k'iłwa:tł' she dropped it down

xoda:k'iwehsch'e' the wind blew down

xoda:k'iwisow it's been scratched down

xoda:na'widxits he fell back (down the hill)

xoda:na:dqe:t the boat moved downstream

xoda:na:ya'xo:łxa' they tracked him down toward the river

xoda:nawh-ding west

xoda:nawhqeh I'm going downstream in a boat

xoda:nch'e: a wind blows down

xoda:ngxe:n they floated down

xoda:nyay it goes down to the foot of the hill, the sun sets, the sun has set

xoda:te:le'n it flowed downhill here and there

xoda:wha:wh I am going down (the hill, steps, to the river, etc.)

xoda:whmowh-te I will slide down

xoda:wiling outlet of a stream, river

xoda:ya'e'il they swim downstream

xoda:ya'k'e'iwiwh they pack things down

xoda:ya'k'itixa:wh they all went down with baskets of flour

xoda:ya:widil'e:tł'ił-te we will have them pointing down

xoda:yde:tł' we went down (the hill, etc.)

xode:k'isiwehsch'e' the wind had met him on its way

xode:siwha:wh I meet him, go to see him, encounter him

xode:wing'e:tł' they were dead

xodinung it (hill) is steep, sloping

xodistł'o:n white cedar (Thuja plicata, coast cedar), Port Orford cedar

xodita:n brushy place

xoditehłxuts' she felt it bite

xodnun-ding Otsepor (Bluff Creek)

xodnun-din-milay' Hopkins Butte

xoh- down to the bottom

xoh futilely, in vain, try (but fail)

-xoh at, in...places

xoh...-heh even if, no matter how

xohch'iwinyay he came down off a ridge; he went down the bank (to the river)

xohk'e:diminłung seventy

xohk'it seven

xohnahdił come back down, you guys!

xohwhyo:l I'm swearing at him

xohwilła:t he ran (down from Bald Hills)

xohwingxits' it fell (to the foot of the hill)

xohxo-ch'e:l-ding name of a village located at the mouth of Willow Creek

xohxo-ji-ding Ko'otep

xoje'sa'a:n he or she is cranky, mean

xoje:'-tilte' he is brave, a brave person

xoje:'-wung-na'udil they 'cake walked' (danced in with flints)

xoje:wung-ch'e'indil they have danced with them (flints)

xoje:wung-na'dil the obsidian bearers in White Deerskin Dance; the dance performed by the principal dancers in the White Deerskin Dance as they carry the ceremonial obsidian blades

xojiwe'-na:ng'e:tł' earrings

xok'e'iłxut' they cover her with it

xokiwiwung'il he sleeps a little at a time

xoky'a'niłte:n someone took it from him

xoky'a'umil someone throws it awawy from her

xoky'a:na'uliwh she takes off the dress again

xoky'a:na'ułkyo:s they take it (skirt) off of her again

xoky'a:ng'ay-yehwilt'ow sleeve

xokyun-chwin'da:nyay he is sick to his stomach

xol'e'n it is visible, in view

xola'-ch'a'awh he pays him

xola'-łe'k'iwiłmut' he clapped his hands

xola'-wid'a:n he has been paid

xola'-yehwilt'ow ring

-xola:n it is evident, there are signs that...

xola:n-na:ste' I helped him (to do a job), I helped him out

xole:n it is plentiful, they are plentiful, there is a lot of (something)

xolisch quickly, fast; hurry up!

xoliwh it feels, it seems like

xolje:-xich civet cat; small spotted skunk (Spilogale gracilis)

xoljeh skunk (Mephitis mephitis)

xoljehch civet cat; small spotted skunk (Spilogale gracilis)

xoł-ch'idwinehł he kept saying

xoł-ch'idye'n the dance that an Indian doctor performs before sucking out a pain

xoł-ch'iyo:diwhne I tease him

xołchweh hire him!

xołchwil swampy place

xołchwił-tah-t'un'nahsma:ts' wild ginger (Asarum caudatum)

xoł-diniwił'a' he is training ("mental training")

xołdiyin sucking doctor (older term)

xołe:kin' her abdomen

xołidi-k'idiłchwe pheasant, ruffled grouse (Bonasa umbellus)

xołiqay the whiteness in the sky before daybreak

xołiqay'tina:wh-kehłtsa:n Dawn Maiden

xołiqoch' a gap between hills, a hollow between higher places

xołit there is a sudden sharp noise (like the report of a gun being fired, stomping feet)

xoł-nintiwh sleep with her!

xoł-no:nilit he finished sweating (in the sweathouse)

xoł-te:lit he had a sweat, sweated in a sweathouse; he prayed, made medicine, smoked himself for luck

xołtsa:y dry ground

xołtsay-taw water panther; "lion", mythical monster animal with a ruff of fur around its neck, like a lion's mane

xoł-wiwhdiye'n I danced the doctor-dance

xołxitich medium sized fast-sliding snake, non-poisonous

xoł-xitinaw the unborn child moves in her, she starts feeling she is going to give birth

xołyah I'm hurting, wounding him (with a stick, knife, etc.)

xon' ch'ite'iwiwh he packs the fire

xon'-na'k'e'ilaw she (customarily) gathers things back up

xon'-na'we Brush Dance (general term); fire-waving medicine

xon'-na:na:'uswe' ceremony in the Flower Dance that is performed when it rains during a girl's first menses

xon'-na:ya'awe' they wave the fire; they have a brush dance

xon'-no'ninge:n he lit the fire

xon'-ta'na:n whiskey, any distilled spirits

xon'ta'na:n-mił-wa'k'itłiwh (tending) bar

xon'-wun-nongwiwh light the fire!

xona:'-dehslin he is cockeyed

xona:'e:din he is blind, a blind person

xona:'iłding' blind him!

xona:'-na:wilchwe:n eye glasses

xona:'to'-na:wilin mourning songs

xona:'xwo-sa'a:n eye glasses

xona:di-na:ya'tehłdi'its the boy and girl who run along with the girl in the Flower Dance race

xona:-sinda wait for him!

xona:siwhlay I make fun of him, ridicule him

xona:siwhnik I'm putting my arm around him

xona:t'aw his spirit, soul (as opposed to body)

xona:t'aw-na'ay ta:n doctor

xonchiwh-dich'e:ch' Rough-Nose, another name for Panther in a story told by Mary Marshall

xonchwe'n there is lots of brush, it's a brushy place

xonchwiwh-wa:ng'ay nose plug, nose ornament

xonde:se:n'-te you will feel something for him

xone:sehłyiw I raised him

xong he, she, him, her

xong' fire

xong'-'a:diwh'e:n I fix myself up for a ceremony, put on face or body paint

xong'-ch'ing'-k'iniwhnoy I barbecue (fish, meat) by roasting it on spits around a fire

xong'-din ashes

xong'-min matches

xong'-mina:t-ch'itina:wh a dance held in the Big House to scare off sickness

xong'-na'a:de:law I dressed up, put on my regalia

xong'-na'a:dileh put on your regalia!

xong'-nehwa:n orange (color)

xong'-siwe:n the fire lies there

xong'xahwh-ding Merip

xongwhe give him a name! call him by name!

xongxong' a type of edible mushroom

xonin'-na:na'ule' looking right and left during Jump Dance

xonin'-q'e:ts locust

xonin'ts'e:k' cricket chirps, chirping cricket

xoning'-łintehłdow he frowned

xoning'-wiltuch' Indians from upstream

xoninsohch small, white-spotted mink (Mustela vison)

xonist'e'-ta:k'idehsne:ge' his body feels sore, dull; he is drowsy from lack of exercise

xonist'e'-xa'siliwh-ding Hooker Ridge

xonist'e'-ya:n someone who has killed a person, cannibal, killer

xoniwil'-na:way he is dizzy, half drunk

xono'xine:wh he overpowers him (with words), talks bad luck into him, wishes him to death

xonowh'aw I'm fooling him, deceiving him

xonsa:t it (water) is deep

xonsah-ding where the water is deep (old village site in Hoopa Valley)

xonse:l it (weather) is warm, hot, sunny; there is heat

xonsił summer

xonsił-ch'idilye White Deerskin Dance

xonsił-chwiw another name for the mourning dove

xontah house (modern); the wooden back-board for the Jump Dance

xontah-ma:-silay the foundation of a (modern) house

xontah-me:q'-mił-na:na'k'iqot mop

xontah-nikya:w the Sacred House, "church", at Ta'kimiłding (Hostler Ranch)

xontah-yayliwh bumblebee

xonte:lkyohme' bench back of Oscar Brown's place

xontehł flat, prairie

xontehł-ji-me' Hyampom

xontehł-me' name of a Chilula village

xontehł-me' Wintu village at Hayfork

xontehł-miwah name of a former village near Campbell Field prairie

xontehł-taw coyote

xontł'its' hard, solid ground

xonwho:n it (area, space) is clear; there is a clearing

xoq'eh-na'way the girl who accompanies the medicine maker (k'ima:w-ch'iłchwe) at the Brush Dance

xoq'it-'iwhdine I'm helping him

xoq'it-ch'iswa:l a Flower Dance is held for her

xoq'it-ch'ite:ng'e'n diagnose, an Indian doctor is "tracing" on someone (acting as diagnosing doctor)

xoq'it-dahsa'a:n headdress worn by men at the Kick Dance

xoq'oskin'ding-nowhchwit I choke him

xoq'os-mił-widloy' scarf

xos cough, cold in the head

xosa'k'iłtse:tł' they threw it into his mouth

xosa'k'ing'its he shot in his mouth

xosa'wiłgit she put a little dab (of medicine) in her (sister's) mouth

xosa:k' abalone (Haliotis), abalone shell

xosa:k'-kya' skirt with abalone shell pendants sewn on

xosa:ng'ay a short whistle made from the leg bone of a crane (xahslintaw-mits'ine'), used only by the obsidian bearers in the White Deerskin Dance

xosa:ng'ay-me'-ch'idiłne flute

xosa:sta:n-ts'iswa:l he makes a war-whoop

xosah-k'itidlut he can't talk plainly; he talks in a broken way

xosah-na:lit pepper

xosah-sa'a:n he has a song, a song comes to him

xoshdó:ng' it could be (but I really doubt it)! I really don't believe it!

xosin being (so), exhibiting (such and such) characteristics

xosits'-mil freshwater mussel (Mytilus californianus); mussel-shell or abalone-shell spoon used by women

xosta:n six

xosta:ndiminłung sixty

xot'ina:n-ding Wahsekw (Martin's Ferry)

xote:se:ts'e:k' I scratched him

xotiway-kyoh-q'it Mountain on Waterman Ridge

xotiway-q'it Pactah (part of Weitchpec)

xotł'inch'e' her co-wife

xots'ine-mił-ya'mil Oregon grape (Berberis nervosea)

xotse:tł'iwa'-ne:s Chinese person

xotuq-ch'e'ninyay for a woman to dance between two male partners; a feature of the Brush Dance

xowa'tiliwh he distributes them (e.g. regalia) to them

xowa'tiqot they poke things to them each one

xowa'uxa:wh they give her a basket

xowa:'iłda: she handed it (a baby) to her

xowa:dlay they were given to her

xowa:na:ch'ime:tł' he threw it (pipe) back to him

xowa:na:na:lwe:n medicine to remove hard feelings, for forgiveness

xowa:ningxits' it went through him or her (for example, an arrow)

xowa:ya'inta:n they gave it (a bow) to him

xowa:ya'tiłkyo:s he gives them (aprons) to each of them

xowah-na'k'ita'aw a "light" or fast song at the Kick Dance

-xowe:-ding located at, in...places

xowehskit-ne'in he was nearly caught

xowh it seems, it must be, it might be, I guess

xowh'ay I ask him (to do something)

xowhch'e:t I'm lying, I'm a liar

xowhła:n there are many people

xowhłe:n I have plenty (of something)

xowhniwh I am awake

xowhq'eh I'm going to copulate with her, I'm going to have intercourse with her

xowich'e:t a lie, falsehood, lying

xowidilik what has been told, a story, telling, account

xowilik telling (something to someone)

xowinłit-tehł there will be a sudden noise

xowinsa:t it got to be deep

xowinse'n it started

xowinse:l it got warm

xowinya'n it has gone wild

xowiwhda'uł I am carrying him about

xowiyeh up a steep slope; it (hill) is steep

xowo'-mił-tehna:k'iłdiw toothbrush

xowun'de'iłkyo:s they take it (a blanket) off of her

xowung-dahding'awh take it (e.g., stone) away from him, deprive him of it!

xowung-ky'a:xawhky'ow I'm envious of him

xowung-na:ya'de'itul they used to drag their feet over him

xowung-q'it village at Campbell Field; Kentuck Ranch; Danceground

xowuni-q'it name of the northernmost Chilula village

xowun-nahsdimit it turned over (like a boat)

xowun-no'niłqe:t he aimed at him

xowut-ch'ixowehsya'n he watched her

xowut-xowhya:n I'm carefully watching him, looking after him

xoxiwhnay I'm saving him, I saved him, cured him

xoxotinit creek above Eslick's mentioned in Emma Lewis' formula of the Rain Rock medicine

xoy vomit

xoya:n it (e.g. horse, bull) is wild, shy, suspicious of people

xoyeh-no'ningxa:n she served food to him, placed food in front of him

xudya:n something shameful

xulo:q'e' silverside salmon

xulto'n flea

xułwich uproot it!

xunding it is close, near by

xung' marked stick in Indian gambling (kin-na:way), ace in modern playing cards

xung'awh take it (e.g., stone) out of the ground! dig it up!

xung'-t'e:n married woman

xunis-ch'il'e:n dipper basket

xunis-chwing gossip

xunwheh cough it up!

xutł'e' night

xutł'e'-dung' (early) in the morning, daybreak

xutł'e'dung'-xa:sina:wh morning star

xutł'e'-ky'a:n flying squirrel (Scuiropterus)

xutł'e'-na:mut' bat

xutł'e'-wha moon

xuxa:nt'e it is light (in weight), not heavy

-xw at, around, in that direction

-xw in such a way, in such a manner, being so, while doing so

xwa:-'a:neh a doctor's power, that speaks through her

xwa:-wehsle' he got satiated, he got enough to eat, his belly got filled

-xwe the people of...

xwe'diliw they're attacking them, coming to challenge them to a fight

xwe:da'ay-na:da'ay he's listening

xwe:da'ay-niłje:n he is bald

xwe:da'ay-tsehna:witł'o:n her braided hair (wrapped back of ear with a buckskin tie)

xwe:de'iłoy' hair-plugs (used in fighting)

xwe:de'tł'-sa'a:n ear plug

xwe:lwe:tł' he spent the night

xwe:na:se'ildiqo:l it kept crawling on her

xwe:na:xowilya'n he came back to his senses (after being unconscious, crazy)

xwe:na:ya:lwilil they camped along

xwe:tilchwe'n they (pebbles) grow on to her here and there

xwe:xowht'e:n I look like him/her

xwe:ya:k'e'it'e' it gets cooked for them

xwe:ył-q'it Redwood Ridge, Redwood Creek

xwe:yłq'it-xwe the Redwood Indians, Chilula

xwe:ysxa:n he passed the night

ya' louse (specifically head louse), parasite

ya'de:lts'e' they stayed there (for a while)

ya'dehłts'e they are staying there

ya'ixis they fell over

ya'k'idwul he see-sawed

ya'k'inyo:s he raised (his bow) and pulled (the string)

ya'k'ita'aw the three singers in the White Deerskin Dance, one main singer and two helpers

ya'k'itiquch they toss it along (with a stick), they are playing the stick game, shinny

ya'nahwh he goes up

ya'ne:'iwiwh they pack it there

ya'niłqe:t-e: they got there (in a canoe)

ya'te'iliwh they take them along

ya'te'iłqe:t they shove them (boats) along

ya'te:qot they started on their way with it poked (an enemy's head on a stick)

ya'ułqay white louse

ya'unch'ing coming in this direction from across

ya'wehs'a' he sat down

ya'widqot' he tumbled, wiggled up

ya'wiłq'a:s he tossed (a ball) up

ya'wiłqoch' he hurled it up in the air

ya'wiłwhot' he slid it up, opened the window

ya'wima:s he rolled over

ya'wime:tł' he took them up

ya'winchwit he raised his hand

ya'wingquch he threw it

ya'winsow he scooped, scraped it up

ya'wixa:whił-te he will take it up (a basekt)

ya'xite:na' they escaped

ya'xohsme:tł' he whipped him

ya'xostsa:s he whipped him

ya'xotehłte:n they took him

ya'xwe'iłtong' it causes her to jump up

ya:- into pieces

ya:- up into the air, skyward

ya:'ułkili-q'it Lake at the head of Horse Linto Creek

ya:'usq'ong' lice eggs

ya:dimil "tossel" used in stick game

ya:diwich it tipped over

ya:dmil-e: they fell back

ya:k'idnot it blazes up (in the air), flames up, flashes

ya:k'iliwh raise your hand!

ya:k'iwehsch'e' a wind blew upward

ya:k'iwhk'ił I'm tearing it to pieces, ripping it up

ya:k'iwilk'il fringes (on a bark dress)

ya:k'iwilt'a:ts' something cut up into strips, fringes (as in buckskin)

ya:k'iyohwh it breaks to pieces, flying in all directions

ya:łde:wiming'il they (canoes) filled

ya:na'awh he "raises up" a song, sings the melody of a dance-song

ya:na'k'isdimil she smashed it

ya:na'k'iwiłtsilił-te they may split (logs)

ya:na'wehs'e:tł' they sat down again

ya:na'wił'e:tł'il they hold them up

ya:na:dqeh she shoved herself up

ya:ng'e:tł' they (animals) are sitting

ya:se:wa:n I broke it to pieces

ya:sehłtse:tł' I have pounded it

ya:ta'a'-e: it (a baby) commenced to sit up

ya:te:se:ya:-te I'll go off along

ya:wh'ay I am sitting

ya:whliwhil I was still picking them up as I went along

ya:widxisil they (clouds) flew up

ya:wiloy' it was tied up

ya:xo:'awh the Jump Dance style of dancing

ya:xo:'awh they (a group, line of dancers) jump up and down in the Jump Dance style of dancing

ya:xo:whła'n they became many

ya:xowilwa:tł' he gets beaten up (with a club)

ya:ya'wa'awhil they pick them up one by one, as they go along

ya:yk'iwida:ye'ił they (flowers) keep blooming

ya:yxits' I flew up into the air

yahdzi-me' place mentioned in a formula for bathing at Rain Rock (location unknown)

yawh'awh I pick it up, raise it up (round object)

yawhjich I pick them up (little pieces)

yawhjił I'm slipping, losing my footing

yawhkyo:s I pick it up (blanket, cloth, etc.)

yawhliwh I pick them up (several objects, rope)

yawhłiw I pick it up (a dough-like or floppy object)

yawhtiwh I pick him/her up (living being)

yawhtiwh I pick it up (an empty basket, a long, stick-like object)

yawhtong' I'm jumping (up)

yawhwul I'm chopping it, beating it (with an axe, club, etc.)

yawhxa:wh I pick it up (a bucket, dipper, or other filled container)

yaywiłdichwe:n they have made it for themselves

yaywiłkit (cloud, fog, smoke) rose, went up into the air

ye instead, in a different way

ye in view, evidently

ye'ilts'it it always falls in

ye'iyohł she blew it (incense) in

ye'ohdigit run in! (talking to a group)

ye'ts' wart

ye:w that, there (far off)

yeh- in, into (an enclosure)

-yeh under, at the foot of

yeh'idjeh they are crowding themselves in, flocking in

yeh'ił'ah they move into (an enclosure)

yeh'iłt'oh slip it in (cork into bottle, arm into sleeve, etc.)! put it in where it fits!

yeh'ing'awh put it (e.g. stone) inside!

yeh'iwhde'iwh I'm looking in (to see what's inside)

yehch'e'ixa:wh she always brought it (a filled container) in

yehch'itul shoes (general term)

yehch'iwhine:nyo:t they drove me into it

yehch'iwiłje:w he crowded them in

yehch'iwiłq'a:s he threw them in

yehch'iwiłqe:t he shoved (a stick) in; he landed the canoe

yehch'iwiłte:n he put it (a living thing) in

yehch'iwina:whil he has come in

yehch'iwinge:n he brought them in (acorns)

yehch'iwingxits'-te someone will fall into it

yehch'iwinta:n he put it in

yehe exclamation of angry surprise

yehk'e:łwis-te I'm going to drill a hole in it

yehk'iłqot' put the net on to the frame!

yehk'iłt'oh put on, slip on (pants, socks, shirt, anything that fits tightly)!

yehk'iłtul they file into the dance (Brush Dance, Flower Dance)

yehk'iłyo:l trumpet, cornet

yehk'imil she is dipping out (water) into (containers)

yehk'ine:nde'n light came in

yehk'ingqot he stuck it in

yehk'inyo:wh (water) pours in (e.g., through a hole)

yehk'iwehsch'e' the wind blew in

yehk'iwilda' an older term for the bowl in a pipe (indicating that it was considered to be "alive")

yehk'iwilqot' (it is) circular, bent in

yehk'ixowilt'ow overalls, pants

yehky'a'a:n there is a hole in it, there is a den, cave

yehky'a'a:n den, animal's cave, hole

yehna'k'iliji-wha:' late winter month; March

yehna'tehłtse:tł' he bumped it into something

yehna'wilay he put several objects back in (specifically: he loaded the gun, put bullets in)

yehna'wilo:s she dragged it in

yehna'wiłme:n he made it swim in

yehna'winła:t he ran back in

yehna'xo:łwa:tł' he threw him in

yehna'xołkya' (s)he put a dress on her

yehna:dchwa'n it squeezed itself back in

yehna:dla:t it floated in again

yehna:l'e:tł' they were stuck in

yehna:ldito'n he jumped back into it

yehna:lqe:t eagle feathers stuck into headbands

yehna:wilin they flow into it (the river)

yehna:xowh'ay I'm inviting him in

yehna:xowilt'ow someone is dressed (in something)

yehnawhma:s I'm turning it (a bolt) on its threads

yehnawhtul I'm putting on my shoes

yehnindilin they are scattered in (the river)

yehwe:de:tł' we (2) went in

yehwe:yay I came in

yehwehs'a' it was in

yehwhidiwilxuts' it (e.g. insect) bit into me

yehwidqe:t (a canoe) landed

yehwidqot' it fell in

yehwile:lił-te it will always go into the stream

yehwilin-ding name of a village

yehwilt'ow it is corked

yehwilxit' flint knife for cutting fish or roots

yehxo:ng'a:n they ran in

yehxolt'o:w shirt

yehxołda' put him inside! fetch him in!

yehya'k'iwiqol they poke them in

yehya'ułxiwh they haul it over (in boats)

yehya'wilaw they have put them in

yehya'wił'e:tł' they stuck them in

yehya'winsow they scoop them in

yehyiwiłkił (cloud, fog, smoke) rolls in

yehyiwiłkit it (smoke) floated in

yi'e small

yida(h)-xo-mingwah placename from the story of the Scabby Young Man (unknown location)

yida:ch'in-dinun-ding Weitchpec Butte (Burrill Peak)

yida:ch'in-k'itidmut' Lewis woodpecker (Asyndesmus lewis)

yida:ch'in-ninyay Yurok

yida:ch'in-te'il sea lion (Zalophus californianus), seal

yidahch'in Karuk, Konomihu, Shasta or other Indians on the Klamath and Salmon Rivers

yidahch'in-tse:q'iya:ng'ay silver-grey fox

yidah-ding lower part of Hostler Ranch village

yide' downstream

yide'-dining'xine:wh Tolowa Indians, Smith River Indians

yide'-dinung-xine:wh Tolowa Indians, Smith River Indians

yide'e:n'ch'ing' on the downstream side

yide'-q'it-ch'ing' ch'ixine:wh-q'it placename from Emma Lewis's formula for the birth of a first child (unknown location)

yide'-xa'usdił-ding Bald Mountain

yide'xoma' name of a house mentioned in a story about an encounter with a grizzly bear

yide:xone'iyiw ceremonial restrictions have ended

yide:xoniwiyehł she is through with it (menstruation)

yiduq up away from the stream, uphill

yiduqa-dimit (animal, person) with its belly up, (glass, etc.) with its open end up, (hand) with palm up

yiduqa-to:-me' the ocean to the east of the world

yiduqa-to:-no:ng'a:-ding the ocean to the east of the world

yiduq-dahwinłuł a second name for the jay, bluejay

yiduqe:-q'ay'-na:'ulid-ding Karuk village at Happy Camp

yiduqe:-xodnun-ding Inam

yiduqi-łe:na:l-ding the forks of New River, above Denny

yiduqi-nilin New River

yiduq-łe:da'a:-ding at the corner of the house

yiduq-nung'awh turn (round object) over! turn it upright!

yik'iqa:n-ding Chimariko village located at Big Creek

yik'iqung it (dog) barks in deer-hunting

yik'iwidts'osil they (dentalia) were sucking

yik'iwingqa:n it barked, started to bark

yiłchwe work, what one does (old-fashioned word)

yiłxa it is dawning, day is breaking

yima:n across, across the stream

yima:n'ch'ing' on the other side (of the stream), on the opposite side

yima:n'dil white man, white people

yima:n'dil-mikine' modern playing cards

yima:n-e:-k'iwingxoya:n the culture hero, protagonist featured in many creation stories

yima:ne:k'iwingxoya:n-xoyehch'itul' ladyslipper (Cypripedium fasciculatum)

yima:n-sile'n-ding springtime

yima:n-tiw'winyay the culture hero, protagonist featured in many creation stories

yima:n-yehch'iwhiwiłxe:n he ferried me across the river

yinahch'in Chimariko, Upper Trinity River or South Fork people

yinahch'in-ta:ng'ay-q'it place mentioned in a love medicine formula

yineh in the ground, under the surface of the ground, underground

yineh-taw Indian potato

yiniłkit fog (is) reaching (to the house)

yiniwa'awhil they keep on bringing them (songs) one at a time

yiniwilgilil it kept getting afraid of (something)

yiniw-na:k'idmo:t' mole (Scapanus)

yiniw-na:lto'n a mythical bird with spikey wings

yiniw-na:way bullsnake, gopher snake (Pituophis melanoleucus)

yino:da'ay it was sticking to it

yinuq upstream

yinuqa-no:ta:tł'a: Big Lagoon

yinuqi-no:mitse'-ding name of a Chilula village

yinuqi-ts'isday Acorn Provider, an old man spirit who is the "boss" of all food

yinuqi-yiduq upstream-uphill (i.e., moving in an upstream direction while going away from the stream)

yise:n'ch'ing' on the downhill side, on the streamward side

yisxun-de' tomorrow

yisxun-yisxa:n the day after tomorrow

yitiłkit it (smoke, fog, cloud) moves off

yitiłtsil baseball

yitiłtsil play catch

yits'e:k' it (animal, bird) catches, grabs something (in its claws)

yitse'n downhill, down towards the stream

yitse'n-e:-q'i-ch'ing Chilula acorn gathering camp

yitse'ni-ning'ay-q'it name of a Chilula village

yitse'ni-wa'a:l the sun gets lower and lower in the sky, moves progressively westward

yitse'ni-wing'a' the sun has moved to the western side of the sky, it is afternoon

yitse'ni-xohch'indił-ding Blue Lake

yiw- best, out-performing others

yiwi-dimit (glass, etc.) inverted, with its open end down, (animal, person) with its belly down, (hand) with palm down; inverted, with its open end down

yiwidin- finally

yiwidin-de' finally

yiwiding-hit finally, after some time

yiwiłkił (cloud, fog, smoke) moves along

yiwiso:l it scratches, scrapes as it moves along

yiwun-na:'usmit he turned it (e.g. basket, boat) over

yo'n on the far side of the fire pit (in an Indian house)

yo'ohłkyohs bring it (a cloth, blanket) in! (talking to a group)

yo:diwidxilił-te they will ask for it

yo:-niwiłtso'n it (sky, weather) cleared up

yo:w that, there (close by)

yuk'iwidmil it throbs, twitches

yulch'uq' (frog) hops, jumps

yułwuł throw it (stick) up in the air!

yungwiwh pack it! carry it as a pack!

yunłeh rot!

yunt'us cut it up!

yuntuł take a step! step up!

Dictionary Entry
[entry ID #4046] (related entries)

nawhqits' • I'm twisting it back and forth • verb (theme: na:=O-(s)-qits') [imperfective, 1sg subject, inanimate object]

Phrases and expressions